A1 Comments from Lec: Overall, this report adequately meets most of the requirements and presents a reasonable effort, but unfortunately an inability to construct a problem statement, falls short of the requirements.
You clearly understand the academic/theoretical concepts to appropriately applied in analyzing both the internal and external environmental analysis. However, it needs further refinement in deriving at the conclusion (opportunities & threats), in particular the outcomes of the analysis that will impact the management decision making.
A2 comments from Lec: Thanks for your submission. Please find below some feedback on your report. o Executive summary is more of an introduction. This should be a short summary of the whole report including the findings. o A well-presented table of contents. o Introduction: A generally well-presented introduction with a clear focus and purpose of the report.
Literature review: A solid literature review has been provided. This briefly introduced the selected project and provided clear identification of the research question being answered. The discussion provided a generally well-developed discussion on some of the macro/meso/micro issues relevant to the situation.
Provides some points related to the sustainability challenges in Singapore. This section needed to be supported by some good use of relevant industry papers.
Implications: A reasonably well-developed discussion on the product uptake implications for the project. This is based on some well-selected topics for client organizations by discussing: CSR matters and Leadership.
However, the CSR section needed to explore related models/ theories/ frameworks that could be used to support the business model. Exploring SLO further would have been useful. The leadership theory selected (i.e., transformational) is relevant although somewhat limited given the complexity of the project.
Would have been good to provide a more developed argument as to why this leadership approach is particularly relevant. The link between transformational leadership and ADKAR is not clear as these do not necessarily go together.
Discussion on change mgt is not a strong choice given the topics to select from (i.e., leadership, ethics, CSR, HRM). The alignment between the topics needed to have been explored. Some critiquing tools/models/frameworks needed to be included. o Recommendations: A reasonable recommendations section is provided however it is more strengths and limitations so the actual recommendations are not clear.
This needed to discuss possible applications and highlight management challenges to present some convincing argument for a corporate board of directors. The analysis could have shown greater understanding of the complexity so more nuanced in its analysis of the management challenges. Would have been good to drawn in findings from the implications.
- Conclusion: A limited conclusion as it is more of a recap of what was done than a conclusion that neatly closes the discussion linking back to the introduction and the stated purpose of the report.
- Reflection: The reflection section has been included and offers some useful insights into the feedback from Ass1. Overall this could have been a lot more developed. Well below the word count limit.
- A generally well written paper. o A reasonably limited range of academic research used to support the discussions. The research that has been provided has been used well. However, the research needed to draw a lot more on more scholarly industry literature as well as literature related to the management topics discussed.
- A reasonably solid capacity shown to apply the Harvard referencing system. A few referencing issues needing to be addressed. In particular, some sections needed an evidence base/citations.
- Overall a reasonably solid capacity shown to address the assessment criteria. We wish you all the best with your assignment 3.
A3 requirements: This assignment is designed to get you to think more deeply about Part 3 of how you might solve the overall management challenge and why your chosen approach could be the “best way.”
Your goal in A1 (Part 1) was to analyze what the FFCRC does as an R&D organization, and the goal of A2 (Part 2) was to analyze a particular energy product created by Engie Energy Resources (listed below).
In A3 (Part 3), you will bring what you have learned in A1 and A2 together to design a business model/roadmap for FFCRC to present to Engie Energy Resources about how they could work together to commercialize that product for three business sectors.
The goal of this report is to evaluate the possibility of mobility products developed at the REIDS-SPORE facility by ENGIE Lab, such as hydrogen recharging stations and hydrogen-fueled electric vehicles being commercialized for use in the taxi industry in Singapore and the entire Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region as well.
The implications of management challenges underpinning the use of ENGIE’s mobility products in decarbonizing the taxi industry were explained by the stakeholder theory of corporate social responsibility and the ADKAR change management model of leadership.
This report determined that ENGIE’s mobility products are indeed scalable in the decarbonization of Singapore’s economy but would necessitate all involved parties to spend more because of the high cost of infrastructure required to facilitate the use of the products. The decarbonization solution was found to be viable only in the long run because costs incurred in the installation of required infrastructure cannot be settled within a short period of time.
The carbon footprint in Singapore is estimated to be 6.4 million tons per year. Recent studies reveal that if light automobiles such as taxis were to run on electricity, the aggregate carbon emissions would drop by 1.5 to 2 million tons per year (Reuteret al., 2014). This implies that almost a third of the carbon emissions in Singapore are attributed to light vehicles like taxis.
ENGIE lab, through its hydrogen-powered mobility products, could significantly neutralize Singapore’scarbon emissions (Jianget al., 2017). This report aims to evaluate the possibility of commercializing ENGIE’s mobility products to various end-users of the taxi industry in Singapore to help in alleviating carbon emissions.
To assess the feasibility of commercializing the products, a study was conducted to comprehend Singapore’s energy needs and the sustainability challenges that hinder it from realizing the Paris COP 2015 climate change targets. The report then reviewed the steps taken by the Singapore taxi industry in alleviating the GHG emission problem.
Relevant theories were then applied to explain the implications of management challenges underpinning the use of ENGIE’s mobility products, and finally, recommendations were proposed to enlighten ENGIE Energy Resources on the scalability of commercializing its mobility products.
Part 1: Macro, Meso, & Micro Context of Singapore and the Taxi Industry
1.1 Overview of Singapore’s Energy Needs
Singapore’s power generation initially came from petroleum products but later natural gas was used as the nation saw the need for cleaner energy production. The push for sustainability has made Singapore consider emerging low-carbon alternatives such as hydrogen to reduce its carbon footprint.
Hydrogen would serve as a very useful renewable energy in enabling Singapore achieve its sustainability goal. According to the 2020 Singapore Business-As-Usual emission statistics, the transport sector is responsible for 14.5% of total carbon (iv) oxide emissions, exceeded only by industrial activities with 60.3%. The use of hydrogen fuel would come in handy in alleviating GHG emissions caused by taxis and the transport sector in general as the combustion of hydrogen does not produce carbon emissions.
1.2 Overview of the Sustainability Challenge in Singapore Towards Meeting Energy Needs
The transition to renewable energy sources to meet the Paris COP 2015 targets has faced many constraints. For starters, Singapore does not produce fuels needed for power generation like natural gas but rather imports them; this makes the energy diversification plan to be extremely costly.
Furthermore, the lack of suitable climatic conditions and adequate natural resources has inhibited deployment of renewable energy sources such as geothermal energy and hydroelectric power. Nevertheless, Singapore has taken great strides in achieving the Paris COP 2015 targets.
Recent statistics indicate that 6 out of every ten taxis in Singapore run are electric or hybrid; a 42% rise from three years ago. Singapore also declared a 36% GHG emissions reduction target which it hopes to achieve by 2030. (Massieret al., 2018).
1.3 REIDS-SPORE Project
The Renewable Energy Integration Demonstrator – Singapore (REIDS-SPORE) project is a multi-fluid microgrid solution at Semakau Landfill that provides the test bench to test innovative lowcarbon emission solutions in a tropical environment by addressing the four switches of energy transition (natural gas, solar, regional power grids, emerging low-carbon alternatives).
The energy sources at the REIDS-SPORE project include, Singapore’s tallest wind turbine, a Photovoltaic (PV) farm, and a hydrogen full chain system employed to demonstrate the scalability of a renewable energy solutions (Peng& Wild, 2017).
1.4 Research Question
How scalable are ENGIE’s mobility products in lessening GHG emissions caused by taxis within Singapore and the ASEAN region?
Part 2: Models & Theories that Explain Implications of Management Challenges
To effect change in an organization a leader should be transformational. There are several change management models that can be applied by organizational leaders in effecting organizational change. This report applies theADKAR model. ADKAR is an acronym for Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, and Reinforcement. The model requires leaders to be aware of the need for change, have desire to effect change, the knowledge to effect the change, the ability to put up with the change, and the will to keep the change reinforced.
The ADKAR model is applicable in the Singapore taxi industry. All taxi drivers in Singapore are unionized under the National Taxi Association (NTA). The primary objective of the NTA is to advocate for the interests of taxi drivers and train them to cope with innovations in the taxi industry.
In this regard, the NTA could help taxi drivers adopt to hydrogen-fueled electric taxis suggested by ENGIE. The NTA ought to be aware of the need for electric taxis because of the increased push for sustainability in the transport sector. It should also desire to help drivers transit to electric taxis as a law was passed to decline registration of diesel taxis by 2025.
Effecting the change will not be complicated since all that is needed (knowledge) is to train drivers on how to use electric taxis. NTA can also reinforce the change for a long-period since renewable energy is environmental-friendly.
2.2 Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a management concept whereby corporations incorporate socio-environmental concerns in their business activities and interactions with society. CSR applies the stakeholder theory which emphasizes that new innovations must be vetted by stakeholders so that they don’t make a loss in their interests.
Renewable energy solutions such as those suggested by ENGIE must be approved by stakeholders so that they don’t lose a stake in their interests. The introduction of hydrogen-fueled electric vehicles (HFEVs), for instance, is likely to impact all taxi firms’ stakeholders and as such stakeholder implications of their use ought to be carefully considered that they shareholders are not negatively affected.
The stakeholders, in this case, must be fully informed of the gains or losses they’re likely to make from the adoption of such renewable solutions so as to decide whether to accept or decline such solutions.
This points the need for taxi organizations to communicate all information pertaining adoption of new solutions to their stakeholders no matter how minor the effects may be. If the stakeholders accept implementation of ENGIE’s mobility products, taxi operators are given Social Licenses to Operate (SLO) as their practices are acceptable in the eyes of the public.
2.3 Overall alignment
In general, stakeholders of taxi organizations should accept the transition to HFEVs in the taxi industry because the government, employees, and the society in general (stakeholders) will be relieved by the decrease in carbon emissions initially caused by taxis.
The NTA which represents the interests of taxi drivers should ensure that the interests of taxi firms are well represented in the transition to electric taxis. It’s evident all stakeholders have something to gain, the transition to ENGIE’s mobility products should therefore be given a green light because it is scalable unless there is anything out of the ordinary.
Part 3: Recommendations
Whether the transition to hydrogen-fueled EVs is recommended or not entirely depends on the shortcomings/concerns and benefits that will accrue to taxi firms and drivers and other stakeholders should the change be implemented.
HFEVs are a zero-carbon emission solution to climate change and would be a significant step towards reduction of the carbon footprint in Singapore considering the fact that hydrogen is the most abundant element on earth (Queket al., 2019). The roll out of a fleet of electric taxis in Singapore would therefore be a crucial step towards achievement of the nation’s sustainability goal of a 36% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.
While hydrogen fuel has a lot of appreciable benefit, it is not as cheap as other fuelsasthe normalhydrogen price for a light-duty fuel cell EVis estimated to be $16.51 per kg, whereas a gallon of diesel costs $3.17. Given that a gallon of diesel and a kg of hydrogen provide the same amount of energy, hydrogen can be said to be five times more expensive than diesel.
Getting hydrogen refills in hydrogen charging stations in Singapore Island would therefore be more expensive than expected for taxi operators (Hanet al., 2015). It is also worth noting that the cost of harnessing hydrogen is extremely high even though it is bountiful in nature.
The transition to the use of HFEVs will also be time-consuming and not quite easy since vehicles and hydrogen charging stations would need to be configured for the use of hydrogen which would again require investment of huge amounts of funds.
From the above argument, it can be seen that ENGIE’s mobility products are indeed scalable in the reduction of taxi industry carbon emissions. However, there are high costs incurred in the implementation of such products; therefore, involved parties should be prepared to pay much for this worthwhile course.
The purpose of this report as initially stated was to evaluate the possibility of commercializing and marketing ENGIE’s mobility products to various users of the taxi industry in Singaporeso as to alleviate carbon emissions. To assess the feasibility of commercializing the products, a desktop market study was conducted to comprehend Singapore’s energy needs and the sustainability challenges that hinder it from realizing the Paris COP 2015 climate change targets.
The report then reviewed the steps taken by Singapore and its taxi industry in alleviating GHG emissions. Relevant theories were then applied to explain the implications of management challenges underpinning the taxi industry’s use of ENGIE’s mobility products.
This report intended to answer the question concerning the scalability of ENGIE’s mobility products in lessening GHG emissions caused by taxis within Singapore. It was determined that ENGIE’s mobility products are indeed scalable in achieving a decarbonized economy; however, it would necessitate the social acceptance of the products by taxi drivers (NAT) and stakeholders. The decarbonization goal was however achievable in the long run due to high cost of hydrogen-fuel infrastructure.
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