110 PART FOUR: CASE STUDIES
film industry over the past century, and one on the more recent development in cities like Bangalore of high-technology companies tied to computers, the Internet, and other global connections, Tula Goenka, a professor of documentary filmmaking who was trained in Bollywood and the United States as a film editor, examines the history of Bollywood filmmaking since its inception in the first decade of the twentieth century. Changes in government regulations, such as the casing of the Censor Board rules regarding the representation of sexuality and the opening of the Indian economy forced by the International Monetary Fund, have affected Bollywood and its films. Here culture and economics unite in creat-ing the new style of Bollywood film so popular across the glohc. The geographer Sanjukta Mukherjec takes us to the high-technology centers of the South Indian city of Bangalore, where she explores the changing landscape of the city. High-tech industrial zones and gated communities have transformed the region, while also making sharper the distinctions between rich and poor. Women working in high-tech fields face particular challenges, ranging from physical safety to negotiating their dual roles as wives and employees in demanding professions. The modern Bangalore is without doubt a product of globalization, of finance, of-communications, and of cultural transformations. It is a fitting symbol with which to end our exploration of glohalizing South Asia.
Social Change in Rural India A Village Study
SUSAN SNOW WADLEY
Girls in jeans, cell phones everywhere, televisions blaring: this is modern rural India. Along with India’s cities, the country’s rural communities are changing, due to the urban employment of many residents, increased levels of education, higher ages at marriage, lower fertility rates, changing roles of women, and increased use of the products of global markets. Representative of the odd twists of change is the fact that 50 percent of Indian households now have a cell phone but no toilet facilities. Understanding key factors of social change in rural India is fundamental to under-standing South Asia today. With some 70 percent of India’s population of 1.2 billion still living in several hundred thousand villages in rural areas, rural communities continue to form the core of the Indian nation. In these rural communities lie both the strengths and the potential weaknesses of the nation, as the benefits of a modem India are unevenly distributed and accessed, both in individual communities and across communities. In this case study, I focus on social change in the village known as Karimpur, with the goal of laying a framework for further explorations of modern South Asia. Certainly the best studied “village” in South Asia, Karimpur has been the focus of social science research since the 1920s, when William Wiser—a Presbyterian missionary and agricultural specialist who would go on to obtain a PhD in rural sociology from Cornell University– first sought to understand the lifeways and farming practices of its rural residents in order to better focus his work with Indian farmers. He and his wife, Charlotte Wiser, continued to live and work with and to write about Karimpur residents through the 1960s (see Wiser and Wiser 2000). In the late 1960s, I began doing my doctoral research in Karimpur, and I have contin-ued my connection to the village ever since (see my 1994 book, Struggling with Destiny in Karimpur, 1925-1984). This chapter is based on my more than forty years of work in Karimpur, as well as the work of the Wisers. During that time, I have lived in Karimpur for more than three years, and I have visited almost yearly for the past twenty-five years, sometimes for a week, sometimes for six weeks. When there, I live with a family, shar-ing their house (and helping to rebuild it), enduring the lack of electricity, the monsoon rains, the all-too-present mosquitoes, while loving what was once the only latrine in the village. I have close friendships with many of the people in the village and nowadays look forward to the once a month e-mails with news of my friends and more recently Facehook posts.
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