Management And Strategies In Administrative Leadership During Covid 19 And

Introduction

Administrative leadership is the task of mobilising the employees working at a particular organisation to maintain the development. A successful administrative leader focuses on establishing the process of protection towards the operational process of the organisation as well as the employees. Two important aspects related to administrative leadership are strategic leadership and operational leadership (Van van Wart and Dicke, 2016). In strategic leadership, the leader clarifies the purpose and ensures a goal inspiring the employees to focus on a shared vision.

Moreover, thus in this process avails the outcome. On the other hand, operational leadership includes recruiting staff, focusing on the budgets, supporting the staff and maintaining a workplace environment positively. In this perspective, a leader can be defined as a person who motivates and encourages people to focus on common goals inspiring them to achieve a goal with their inherent potentiality.

The leaders always work in a team, and they develop strategies for different organisations. In a business setting, it is difficult to identify leadership because there it becomes a corporate role where the leader has to lead a team as well as motivate them by inspiring them on the other hand. So, a corporate leader has a wide range of responsibilities to maintain (Ibeme,  2020).

For this, a leader needs to have a clarity of thought and skills to motivate others, patience, trustworthiness, positivity, communication skills, presentation skills and most importantly, the skill of listening. In an administration, the leader needs to efficiently manage the people as well as the resources to meet the objectives of an organisation.

An administrative leader is the backbone of an organisation without whom management would be unable to deal with the crisis. An administrative leader has characteristics of planning, coordination, controlling the business etc, along with distributing the information and resources to the employees. A successful administrative leader has technological skills, communicative skills, verbal and non-verbal skills, time management skills etc.

Problem statement

The oil and gas industry experienced collapse and rebounds in their business due to the crisis of covid 19. There has been a huge shift of demand and supply, which is further floored by shocks of megacycles. Except for refining and marketing, there are some exceptional shareholder values where the oil and gas have a stable price and the companies keep low cost where new classes can emerge from mega-mergers in the oil fields.

Earlier, there was an expansion of demand for oil and natural gas to 3 to 5 percent (Bassols and Bassols, 2020). But gradually, during the lockdown situation, the demand felt low. The challenge the government is facing due to the covid 19 pandemic mitigates the economic effects deflecting the attention on the focus of energy.

The climate and environment have become debatable, and the new innovations related to solar and wind energy have also been involved to avail lower cost. All this has made a question on the status of oil and gas companies, their risk factors and governance. Hence, the management strategies of administrative leadership during covid 19 should be evaluated, focusing on oil and gas industries.

Research aim

The aim of the research is to evaluate management and strategies in administrative leadership during covid 19 and its effects on organizational management of the oil and gas industry.

Research objectives

  • To study the adverse situation of the oil and gas industry during the covid 19 pandemic
  • To evaluate the leadership roles in the oil and gas industries
  • To find out the changes in the leadership roles during covid 19 in the oil and gas industries
  • To focus on the impact of covid 19 on the management system in oil and gas industries
  • To evaluate the strategies undertaken by the leaders of the oil and gas industries during covid 19 pandemic for management

Research question

  • How covid 19 pandemic has put an influence on the strategic management of the organisation through administrative leadership in the oil and gas industry?
  • What are the changes in leadership and management system of oil and gas industries that can be undertaken to handle the Covid 19 situation?

Literature review

Impact of covid on the leadership and management of the oil industry Leadership roles and their importance in oil and gas industries

The oil and gas sector would be in the midst of its latest price drop in the last 12 years. Following the very first two shocks, the sector recovered, and standard operating procedure resumed. It is a distinct generation. This current state of affairs includes a market correction, an extraordinary decline in consumption, as well as a worldwide humanistic catastrophe. Furthermore, the industry’s institutional and economic condition is worse now than during prior disasters.

The introduction of shale gas, surplus production, and liberal finance institutions that ignored the restricted resource constraint have all led to low results (Hawash et al. 2020). Despite costs at 30-year lows and escalating government demand, CEOs believe democracy is unavoidable. The COVID-19 situation is worsening. Aside from refining and marketing, there are certain outstanding shareholder values when the oil and gas price is stable, and the firms retain low costs where new classes can arise from massive mergers in the oil fields. Previously, there was a 2% to 6% increase in demand for oil and natural gas. However, as the lockdown wore on, demand began to fall.

Strategy implementation is a stage process technique for identifying unproductive parts of the production system, techniques, institutions, as well as technologies, realigning them to suit commercial enterprise reality objectives, then developing strategies to introduce the proposed adjustments. The approach focuses both on the technological and human aspects of the company. Administrative leadership is the challenge of motivating people working at a certain company while sustaining progress. According to Quitzow et al. (2021), an effective administrative leader concentrates on building a mechanism of protection for the organisation’s operational processes as well as its personnel.

Strategic leadership and operational leadership are two key components of administrative leadership. The leader in strategic leadership explains the purpose and assures a goal, motivating people to focus on a common vision. As a result of this procedure, the output is available. On the other side, operational leadership includes personnel recruitment, budget management, and staff assistance.

An organisational manager is responsible for the overall management, management, and management of the business, as well as the distribution of information and resources to staff (Zharmukhambetova, 2021). A competent administrative leader possesses technological abilities, communicative abilities, verbal and nonverbal communication abilities, time management abilities, and so on. According to this viewpoint, a leader is someone who stimulates and encourages others to focus on common goals, motivating them to reach a goal with their natural potential.

Although the severity and frequency of that kind of disaster remain unknown, the study indicates that without substantial reform, it would be impossible to go back to the consistently favourable financial sector development (Barbosa et al. 2020). On one of its present trajectories and pace, the sector may soon enter a period marked by strong rivalry, digital quick resource use efficiency, stagnant to reduced consumption, investment pessimism, and rising various governmental criticisms concerning climate and environmental effect.

Meanwhile, according to most projections, oil and natural gas will continue to be a multi-trillion-dollar business for generations. It would be too crucial to collapse, considering its significance in delivering inexpensive electricity. The difficulty that the government is experiencing as a result of the covid 19 epidemic mitigates the economic impacts by diverting attention away from the focus of energy. The contradictory multi-criteria judgment also occurs because major components of the organisation have distinct judgment requirements (Yananto, Putro, and Sunitiyoso, 2021).

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Impact of covid-19 on the demand and supply chain of the oil and gas industries

Covid 19 has created a dislocation in the demand and supply of lead, which has resulted in a drop in the price of oil and gas, as well as its supply and income. The market demand for oil has decreased as a result of the Covid 19 epidemic. On the other side, covid 19 has had a beneficial influence since crude oil prices have risen, resulting in profits. Covid 19 has elicited a mixed reaction throughout the oil and gas industries, with profits on the one hand and a lack of demand on the other.

Yaya, Otu, and Labonté, (2020), claims that more studies may be conducted to investigate the attribution of this diverse behaviour of industries to covid 19. Due to the Covid 19 issue, the oil and gas industry undergoes commercial failure and comeback. There has been a significant change in demand and supply, which has been exacerbated by metacyclic shocks.

Climate and environmental issues have grown contentious, and new technologies in solar and wind power have been introduced to reduce costs. Lu, Ma, and Ma, (2020), in their study identify supply chain stability to be one of the challenges that every sector faced during and post covid outbreak. This has called into question the standing of oil and gas corporations, as well as their risk factors and governance.

As a result, the organisational executive management tools and techniques during Covid 19 should be examined with a focus on the oil and gas industries. An administration manager is the organisation’s foundation, without whom administration would have been unable to deal with a catastrophe. According to Buehler et al. (2020), the COVID-19 epidemic has created a new atmosphere of unpredictability, fueling protectionism and feeding nationalistic feelings.

There may be a breakdown in worldwide cooperation at a certain time, either both during and after the epidemic. This might be a disaster in the degree to which public officials agreed of and endorsed the World Bank’s operations, for instance. There could also be a problem in terms of procurement. In the quest for protective equipment from other nations, manufacturing and administration of medications for the treatment of sick individuals, as well as vaccinations to offer protection against COVID-19 (Christensen and Lægreid, 2020).

COVID-19 struck China but also spread throughout the globe, causing numerous disruptions in the socioeconomic and environmental systems of many nations. The worldwide COVID-19 epidemic halted corporate operations, either temporary or permanent, putting industries in danger, according to O&G (Strielkowski et al. 2021). Managers always work as a team to establish strategies for various organisations.

It is tough to recognise leadership in a company context since it becomes a corporate job where the leader needs to manage a team as well as inspire them by motivating them on the other hand. As a result, a business leader must manage a wide range of responsibilities. A leader must have clarity of thinking and the ability to encourage others, as well as patience, dependability, optimism, effective communication, presenting abilities, and, most significantly, the ability to listen. In an administration, the leader must efficiently manage both people and resources to fulfil the goals of the organisation.

According to Iyke (2020), Covid 19 has caused disruption in the demand and supply of the lead that further leads to the decline of the price of oil and gas and its supply and revenue. Due to the covid 19 pandemic, a deduction is seen in the demand of oil prices in the market. On the other hand, there has been a positive impact of covid 19 where the crude oil prices have risen and led to profits.

Covid 19 has produced a heterogeneous reaction over the oil and gas industries where on the one hand, there are profits, and on the other hand, there is a shortage of demands (Ajami, 2020). Therefore, the author states that further research can be made to analyse the attribution of this heterogeneous reaction of the industries to covid 19.

Research process

Introduction

A secondary data collection method can be undertaken to evaluate the articles for a detailed methodology. In this perspective, an interview based on the population can be done to evaluate the research question. In this process, a qualitative method can be undertaken where face-to-face interviews can be taken of different administrative leaders in the oil and gas industries. Then the determinants can be examined in a multivariable adjustment focusing on the demographics as a whole (Alharahsheh and Pius, 2020).

A deductive approach can be taken to evaluate the influence of Covid 19 in the strategic management of leadership in the oil and gas industry. A deductive researcher puts himself into a scientific investigation of some existing theory making a test on the hypothesis, thus emerging something new. Hence, this deductive approach is the primary approach for research.

Research philosophy

The research philosophy undertaken here is interpretivism. Interpretivism is a research philosophy where the researcher focuses on the basic principles of research. Interpretivism focuses on the social world that is interpreted in a subjective manner, proper attention to the understanding of the experiences of people all over the world.

In this research, the philosophy researcher plays an important role in observing the world, focusing on the interest of the researcher (Packard, 2017).  Empirical research is important for the evaluation and understanding of different theories.

Here the researcher assumes that reality is constructed through consciousness, language and instruments. Hence interpretivism can be stated to have its Association with idealism, and it is a diverse approach that involves phenomenology, social construction and hermeneutics.  This is an important approach where the researcher becomes a social representative who focuses on multiple methods to reflect on the aspects of the issues.

It is a naturalistic approach where interviews, thus secondary research methods, are utilised. Interpretivism focuses on business studies; hence it is socially constructed and focuses on socially constructed predictions (Ryan, 2018). The main advantage is its nature of the subjective approach, through which the Research question can be evaluated by focusing on the influence of covid-19 on the administrative leadership in the oil and gas industry.

Research design

The research design undertaken here is a qualitative research design. In qualitative research design, interviews and surveys are used, and the research focuses on the data collected from the derived theories (Goertzen, 2017). Moreover, the theoretical proposition would also be tested in this perspective to undertake interviews of the administrative leaders as well.

Research strategy

A descriptive research strategy will be used in the literature review part. In a descriptive research strategy, the main aim is to describe the population in a precise manner. The first objective is theoretical, where it works as a forerunner of qualitative research. Descriptive research theory provides a clear picture of the phenomenology of the theoretical proposition and its importance.

Research questions in this perspective would identify the factors that are important for focusing a successful experience as a descriptive way focusing on the Elegance processed through the existing theory (Apuke, 2017). The destructive approach would help In the theoretical proposition to find the inside and strength of the findings.

A descriptive method would identify the characteristics that are needed in administering leaders to make a strategic change in the management so that the Oil and Gas Industries can work well during the covid-19 situation.  in this particular research; there would be interview undertaken to define the characteristics of the respondents as well as measuring their data validating the existing research analysis.

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Ethical consideration

In qualitative methods, ethical consideration includes a form of principles where a research question is formulated in research design and analysis, moving towards the conclusion. The data and materials can be designed in different graphs and tables for statistics. In this process, the academic values are needed to be identified by the research where the researcher is true to knowledge and has no other interest (Queirós, Faria and Almeida, 2017).

The next value is putting emphasis on freedom. Honesty is a very important factor in ethical judgement, where being trustworthy for a researcher includes fabrication, plagiarism and sharing of data that would include no duplication of theories and designs. Finally, it is important to protect the integrity of the participants involved in the process of the research, which is a priority in the ethical norms where the personal details of the participants are kept anonymous along with that no forcing of the participants should be made. All the participants should undertake the research voluntarily.

Limitation 

One of the possible limitations of this study is time. The study has to be completed in a limited time because of which it might not be possible to delve deep into the topic. Another limitation is availability of data that is specific to the chosen topic.

Resources Access for Primary and Secondary Data

Data collection

A secondary data collection method is being used to collect data from various sources. In the secondary method, data is collected from different books, journals, newspapers or other forms of published data, or other forms like government statistics and other forms of technical documents (Showkat and Parveen, 2017). It also involves historical statistics as well.

This secondary method of data collection would be used in the case of literature review. Apart from this interview method is also involved where a group of individuals are being interviewed, and the analysis of the research is being done on their answers where a face to face interview can be taken of the different administrative leaders residing in oil and gas industries. The purpose of the interview would be a discussion focussing on the insights and new perspectives.

Sampling technique

Sampling allows a researcher to collect information regarding a particular group resulting in the subset of a particular population with no investigation that is undertaken. Reducing the population reduces the cost of the research and also reduces the workload making it easier to collect information. Hence, there is a synchronization between the balance between the sampling size and the efficacy of the research (Adhabi and Anozie, 2017).

On the other hand, if the sample size is not chosen in the right way, then there can be issues of incorrect outcomes. Non-probability sampling is where purposive sampling is being done, which is cost-effective in nature, and the researcher purposefully makes the selection of different individuals. In this particular research, the researcher would purposefully include the administrative leaders of the oil and gas industry.

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