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General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY • • • • • • • • The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder. Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented; marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. Late submission will NOT be accepted. Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism). Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted. Learning Outcomes: CLO-Covered 1 Define the impact of company’s culture, structure and design can have on its organizational behaviour. (CLO3). 2 Assess challenges of effective organizational communication and share information within the team in professional manner. (CLO4). 3 Examine the differences and similarities between leadership, power, and management.(CLO5). Assignment 2 Reference Source: Textbook:Colquitt, J. A., LePine, J. A., & Wesson, M. J. (2021). Organizational behaviour: Improving performance and commitment in the workplace (7th ed). Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Case Study: – Case: MATTEL Please read the case “Mattel” from Chapter 15 “Organizational Structure ” Page: 505 given in your textbook – Organizational behaviour: Improving performance and commitment in the workplace (7th ed). by Colquitt, J. A., LePine, J. A., & Wesson, M. J. (2021) and Answer the following Questions: Assignment Question(s): 1. If you were a Mattel employee, would you be encouraged by what CEO Ynon Kriez said about how he is following up on restructuring? Is there a way he could have said it better?.(03 Marks) (Min words 150-250) 2. Given that Mattel’s structure is still organized around brands (toys), how do you expect a new film division to fit in from a structural standpoint?. (03 Marks) (Min words 150200) 3. How might Mattel change its structure to be more efficient or successful? (02 Marks) (Min words 150-200) Part:-2 Discussion Questions: – Please read Chapter 12, 13 & 14 “Teams: Process and Communication — Leadership: Power and Negotiation & Leadership: Styles and Behaviour” carefully and then give your answers on the basis of your understanding. 4. Describe the communication process in a student team of which you’ve been a member. Were there examples of “noise” that detracted from the team members’ ability to communicate with one another? What was the primary mode of communication among members? Did this mode of communication possess an appropriate level of information richness? Which network structure comes closest to describing the one that the team used to communicate? (03 Marks ) (Min words 200-300) 5. Which forms of power do you consider to be the strongest? Which types of power do you currently have? How could you go about obtaining higher levels of the forms that you’re lacking? (02 Marks ) (Min words 150-200) 6. Consider the four dimensions of transformational leadership: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Which of those dimensions would you respond to most favourably? Why? (02 Marks ) (Min words 150-200) Important Note: 1. Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook and at least two scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles. 2. References required in the assignment. Use APA style for writing references. Answers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Final PDF to printer 504 CHAPTER 15 Organizational Structure Discussion Questions 15.1 Is it possible to be a great leader of employees in a highly mechanistic organization? What special talents or abilities might be required? 15.2 Why do the elements of structure, such as work specialization, formalization, span of con- trol, chain of command, and centralization, have a tendency to change together? Which of the five do you feel is the most important? 15.3 Which is more important for an organization: the ability to be efficient or the ability to adapt to its environment? What does this say about how an organization’s structure should be set up? 15.4 Which of the organizational forms described in this chapter do you think leads to the high- est levels of motivation among workers? Why? 15.5 If you worked in a matrix organization, what would be some of the career development challenges that you might face? Does the idea of working in a matrix structure appeal to you? Why or why not? Case: Mattel Although ex-CEO Margo Georgiadis’ restructuring ideas were lauded internally at Mattel and many believed they were starting to show results, the environment shifted quickly for the toy company when retailer Toys ‘R’ Us declared bankruptcy and financial results drove Mattel’s stock price to a heavy decline (73 percent) and a 10-year low. Georgiadis resigned less than a year after she started (to become CEO of Ancestry.com). One of Mattel’s board members (appointed by Georgiadis), Ynon Kreiz, became the newly appointed chairman and CEO. Kriez is Mattel’s fourth CEO in 4 years and has experience largely in entertainment and media-distribution along with a background in licensing and merchandising. He is the third CEO in row with no experience in making toys per se. Not wasting any time and less than 3 months after Kriez starting, Mattel announced a reduction of more than 2,200 jobs, which equaled 22 percent of its non-manufacturing workforce. In addition, manufacturing plants in New York and Mexico were planning to be sold. Continuing the “structural simplification program” that was already started, Kreiz hopes to realize a $650 million gain. However, the restructuring plan has created a lot of anxious employees, and employees state that morale is near an all-time low. Asked about how he plans to reassure employees, Kriez stated that “It’s town halls. It’s small group meetings. It’s one-on-one meetings. It’s traveling to all of our offices around the world and meeting people on the ground at all levels of the company. At the same time, part of my responsibility is less talk and more action. What we try to bring to the organization now is clarity and focus. If you do that, and you’re transparent and forthcoming, the message travels. People eventually understand where you are heading and become part of the journey.”* Strategically, Kriez believes that Mattel’s future lies with creating its own media empire. In order to accomplish this, his plans largely revolve around turning Mattel’s brands into movies, television series, and video games. In order to accomplish this, Kriez has created an in-house studio—Mattel Films—within the company. Two major films based around Barbie (starring Margot Robbie) and a live-action Hot Wheels are set for production and release in 2020–2021. One investment analyst replied that “Mattel is doing what should have been done 10 years ago.” 15.1 coL61557_ch15_481-509.indd 504 If you were a Mattel employee, would you be encouraged by what CEO Ynon Kriez said about how he is following up on restructuring? Is there a way he could have said it better? 11/05/19 05:55 PM Final PDF to printer CHAPTER 15 Organizational Structure 505 15.2 Given that Mattel’s structure is still organized around brands (toys), how do you expect a new film division to fit in from a structural standpoint? 15.3 How might Mattel change its structure to be more efficient or successful? *Source: Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Sources: J. Cresswell, “Mattel’s Revival Plan: Bet on Barbie, the Movie,” The New York Times, December 18, 2018, https:// www.nytimes.com/2018/12/13/business/mattel-barbie-movie-ynon-kreiz.html; M. Lev-Ram, “Tech Takeover in Toyland,” Fortune, October 1, 2017, pp. 76-84; Mattel, “Toy Fair Analyst Meeting Presentation,” Mattel.com, February 16, 2018, https:// mattel.gcs-web.com/static-files/b68be31c-d5e3-4fce-8349-8f4b9a0bd49c; RTTNews, “Mattel to Cut More Than 2,200 Jobs,” Markets Insider, July 25, 2018, https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/mattel-to-cut-more-than-2-200jobs-1027400975; P. Ziobro, “Mattel, after Years Toying with Big Screen, Creates Film Division,” The Wall Street Journal, September 6, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/mattel-after-years-toying-with-big-screen-creates-film-division-1536271961. Exercise: Creative Cards, Inc. The purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate the effects of structure on organizational efficiency. This exercise uses groups, so your instructor will either assign you to a group or ask you to create your own group. The exercise has the following steps: 15.1 Creative Cards Inc. is a small but growing company, started 10 years ago by Angela Naom, a graphic designer. The company has added many employees over the years but without a master plan. Now Angela wants to reorganize the company. The current structure of Creative Cards is shown in the accompanying figure. Review the organizational chart, and identify at least 10 problems with the design of Creative Cards Inc. Be sure to consider work specialization, chain of command, span of control, centralization, and formalization in developing your answer. President Payroll Mgr. Finance Dir. Sales V.P. Creative Dir. Exec. V.P. West Coast Operations V.P. Art Design Mgr. Verse Writer Printing Sup. East Coast Sales Mgr. Sympathy Card Sup. Birthday Card Sup. 4 emps. 60 emps. E-Card Sup. 25 emps. Admin. Asst. Card Cutting Sup. 10 emps. Quality Control Mgr. 14 emps. Buyer I Inks Press Operator H.R. V.P. Legal 4 emp. Sanitation Engineer Janitors 4 emp. Distribution Manager. Northern Region Sales Reps. 8 emps. coL61557_ch15_481-509.indd 505 11/05/19 05:55 PM Chapter 12 Teams: Processes and Communication ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Class Agenda Team Processes and Communication Why Are Some Teams More than the Sum of Their Parts? • Taskwork Processes • Teamwork Processes • Communication • Team Sates How Important Are Team Processes? Application: Training Teams ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Transportable Teamwork Competencies • Cross-Training • Team Process Training • Team Building An Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Team Processes and Communication Team process refers to the different types of activities and interactions that occur within a team as it works toward its goals. • Team characteristics, such as member diversity, task interdependence, and team size, affect team processes and communication. • Team processes have a strong impact on team effectiveness. Some processes and communication are observable, and others are less visible. • ©McGraw-Hill Education. For example, a “feeling a cohesion” experienced by team members is not visible. Why Are Some Teams More Than the Sum of Their Parts? 1 of 2 Process gain is getting more from the team than you would expect according to the capabilities of its individual members. • Also called synergy • Results in resources and capabilities that did not exist before the team created them Process loss is getting less from the team than you would expect based on the capabilities of its individual members. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Why Are Some Teams More Than the Sum of Their Parts? 2 of 2 Causes of process loss Coordination loss: Process loss due to the time it takes to coordinate work activities with other team members • Production blocking results from team members waiting on each other before completing their own team tasks. Motivational loss: Process loss due to team members’ tendency to put forth less effort on team tasks than they could • Social loafing results from members feeling less accountable for team outcomes compared with their independent work outside the team. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Taskwork Processes Taskwork processes: the activities of team members that relate directly to the accomplishment of team tasks • Occurs any time that team members interact with the tools or technologies used to complete their work • Relates to task performance aspect of job performance ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 12-1 Taskwork Processes ©McGraw-Hill Education. Creative Behavior Generating novel and useful ideas and solutions Brainstorming is a process used to generate creative ideas: 1. Express all ideas that come to mind (no matter how strange). 2. Go for quantity of ideas over quality 3. Don’t criticize or evaluate the ideas of others. 4. Build on the ideas of others. Drawbacks include social loafing, hesitancy to express ideas in a group setting, production blocking as members wait their turn to express ideas. Benefits include morale boosting and idea sharing. Nominal group technique: Team members individually write ideas and then take turns sharing them with the group. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Table 12-1 IDEO’s Secrets for Brainstorming What to Do Description Have a sharp focus Begin the brainstorming with a clearly stated problem. Playful rules Encourage playfulness, but don’t debate or critique ideas. Number the ideas Make it easier to jump back and forth between ideas. Build and jump Build on and explore variants of ideas. The space remembers Use space to keep track of the flow of ideas in a visible way. Stretch your brain Warm up for the session by doing word games. Get physical Use drawings and props to make the ideas three-dimensional. What Not to Do Description The boss speaks first Boss’s ideas limit what people will say afterwards. Give everybody a turn Forcing equal participation reduces spontaneity. Only include experts Creative ideas come from unexpected places. Do it off-site You want creativity at the office too. Limit the silly stuff Silly stuff might trigger useful ideas. Write down everything The writing process can reduce spontaneity. Source: T. Kelley and J. Littman, The Art of Innovation (New York: Doubleday, 2001). ©McGraw-Hill Education. Decision Making Different processes are used by teams to make accurate and effective decisions. • Consensus is a general agreement among members in regards to a solution (for example, a jury). Factors that affect team decision making • Decision informity reflects whether members possess adequate information about their own task responsibilities. • Staff validity refers to the degree to which members make good recommendations to the leader. • Hierarchical sensitivity reflects the degree to which the leader effectively weighs the recommendations of the members. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Boundary Spanning Relates to taskwork processes that involve individuals and groups who are not considered part of the team • Ambassador activities refer to communications that are intended to protect the team, persuade others to support the team, or obtain important resources for the team. • Task coordinator activities involve communications that are intended to coordinate task-related issues with people or groups in other functional areas. • Scout activities refer to things team members do to obtain information about technology, competitors, or the broader marketplace. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Teamwork Processes Interpersonal activities that facilitate the accomplishment of the team’s work but do not directly involve task accomplishment • Create the setting or context in which taskwork takes place • Involve a combination of types of behaviors ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 12-2 Teamwork Processes Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Transition Processes Focus on preparation for future work • Mission analysis involves an analysis of the team’s task, the challenges that face the team, and the resources available for completing the team’s work. • Strategy formulation refers to the development of courses of action and contingency plans, and then adapting those plans in light of changes that occur in the team’s environment. • Goal specification involves the development and prioritization of goals related to the team’s mission and strategy. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Action Processes Important as taskwork is being accomplished • Monitoring progress toward goals involves recording accomplishments on a progress chart or something similar. • Systems monitoring involves keeping track of things that the team needs to accomplish its work. • Helping behavior involves members going out of their way to help or back up other team members. • Coordination refers to synchronizing team members’ activities in a way that makes them mesh effectively and seamlessly. ©McGraw-Hill Education. OB on Screen Mission: Impossible – Fallout ©McGraw-Hill Education. Interpersonal Processes These are important before, during, or between periods of taskwork, and they relate to the way in which team members manage their relationships. Motivating and confidence building refers to things team members do or say that affect the degree to which members are motivated to work hard on the task. Affect management involves activities that foster a sense of emotional balance and unity. Conflict management involves activities that the team uses to manage conflicts that arise in the course of its work. • Relationship conflict: Disagreements among team members in terms of interpersonal relationships or incompatibilities with respect to personal values or preferences • Task conflict: Disagreements among members about the team’s task ©McGraw-Hill Education. Relationship Conflict 1 2 NONE A LITTLE 3 4 SOME A GOOD BIT 5 A LOT 1. How much conflict do your members have from an emotional perspective? 2. How much tension do you see within your team between members? 3. How many “personality clashes” do you observe between folks on your team? 4. How much friction do you see between members on your team? Average Score: 9 ©McGraw-Hill Education. Communication The process by which information and meaning get transferred from a sender to a receiver • Much of the work done in a team is done interdependently and involved communication among members. • Effectiveness of communication affects whether there will be process gain or process loss. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 12-3 The Communication Process Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Communicator Issues Communicator competence refers to the skills involved in encoding, transmitting, and receiving messages. Emotions and emotional intelligence of team members affect how they express themselves and interpret the messages of others. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Noise Interferes with the message being transmitted Can take on several different forms: • Distance • Obstructions • Physical noise Requires both parties to communication to put in extra effort ©McGraw-Hill Education. Information Richness Relates to the amount and depth of the information being conveyed Includes both language and nonverbal information such as body language, facial expressions, and tone of voice • High information richness: face-to-face conversation • Moderate information richness: personal written note • Low information richness: computer-generated reports filled with numbers ©McGraw-Hill Education. Network Structure The pattern of communication that occurs regularly among each member of a team. Centralization is the degree to which communication in a network flows through some members rather than others. All-channel network structure is highly decentralized. • All members can communicate directly with each other. Wheel network structure is highly centralized. • All communication flows through a central figure. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 12-4 Communication Network Structures Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Team States Refer to specific types of feelings and thoughts that coalesce in the minds of team members as a consequence of their experience working together ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Supportive leadership and positive member interactions can lead to feelings of psychological safety, the sense that it is OK to do things that are interpersonally risky, or that expressing opinions and challenging the status quo won’t be met with rejection. • Ostracism can have negative consequences for both the individual and the team. Figure 12-5 Team States ©McGraw-Hill Education. Cohesion Exists when members of teams develop strong emotional bonds to other members of their team and to the team itself A possible negative outcome of high cohesion is groupthink: members try to maintain harmony by striving toward consensus without ever offering, seeking, or seriously considering alternative viewpoints. Groupthink can be avoided: • Acknowledge detrimental aspects of cohesion. • Assess group’s level of cohesion. • Appoint a devil’s advocate. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Cohesion Assessment Source: Items adapted from E. R. Crawford. “Team Network Multiplexity, Synergy and Performance.” Doctoral dissertation. University of Florida, 2011. Average Score: 45 Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Potency The degree to which members believe that the team can be effective across a variety of situations and tasks • High potency: Members are confident, focused • Low potency: Members are unfocused, lack confidence Team confidence can be too high, especially early in its existence. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Mental Model The level of common understanding among team members with regard to important aspects of the team and its task • Important for team members to share an understanding of one another’s capabilities • Important to anticipate when another member might need help • Important to have shared understanding of how to resolve team conflicts ©McGraw-Hill Education. Transactive Memory How specialized knowledge is distributed among members in a manner that results in an effective system of memory for the team Team members should possess both specialized knowledge that is useful to the team and meta-knowledge regarding who knows what. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Transactive Memory Assessment 1 2 STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE 3 4 NEUTRAL AGREE 5 STRONGLY AGREE 1. I know who knows what on my team. 2. We can’t complete our work without each member’s specialized knowledge base. 3. On this team, different members cover different knowledge areas. 4. There are things I know about on my team’s task that no one else does. 5. Each of our team’s members has some specialty, from a knowledge perspective. Average Score: 15 ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 12-6 Why Are Some Teams More Than the Sum of Their Parts? Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. How Important Are Team Processes? Teamwork processes have a moderate positive relationship with team performance. • This relationship holds true for transition processes, action processes, or interpersonal processes. Teamwork processes have a strong positive relationship with team commitment. • People tend to be satisfied in teams in which there are effective interpersonal interactions. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 12-7 Effects of Teamwork Processes on Performance and Commitment Source: J.A. LePine, R.F. Piccolo, C.L. Jackson, J.E. Mathieu, and J.R. Saul, “A Meta-Analysis of Team Process: Towards a Better Understanding of the Dimensional Structure and Relationships with Team Effectiveness Criteria,” Personnel Psychology 61 (2008), pp. 356–76. Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Application: Training Teams Transportable teamwork competencies refer to knowledge, skills, and abilities. Team training that involves helping people develop general teamwork competencies that they can transport from one team context to another. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Table 12-2 Teamwork Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities Competency Description Conflict resolution • Can distinguish between desirable and undesirable conflict. • Encourages desirable conflict and discourages undesirable conflict. • Uses win–win strategies to manage conflict. Collaborative problem solving • Can identify situations requiring participative problem solving. • Uses the appropriate degree of participation. • Recognizes and manages obstacles to collaborative problem solving. Communications • Understands communication networks. • Communicates openly and supportively. • Listens without making premature evaluations. • Uses active listening techniques. • Can interpret nonverbal messages of others. • Engages in ritual greetings and small talk. Goal setting and • Helps establish specific and difficult goals for the team. performance management • Monitors, evaluates, and provides performance-related feedback. Planning and task coordination • Coordinates and synchronizes activities among team members. • Establishes expectations to ensure proper balance of workload within the team. Source: Adapted from Stevens, M. J., and M. A. Campion. “The Knowledge, Skill, and Ability Requirements for Teamwork: Implications for Human Resource Management.” Journal of Management 20 (1994): pp. 503–530. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Cross-Training Training team members in the duties and responsibilities of their teammates • Personal clarification: Training in which members simply receive information regarding the roles of the other team members • Positional modeling: Training that involves observations of how other team members perform their roles • Positional rotation: Training that gives members actual experience carrying out the responsibilities of their teammates ©McGraw-Hill Education. Team Process Training The use of team experiences that facilitates the team’s ability to function and perform more effectively as an intact unit. • Action learning: Team process training in which a team has the opportunity to work on an actual problem within the organization • Second type: Involves experience in a team context when there are task demands that highlight the importance of effective teamwork processes ©McGraw-Hill Education. Team Building Fun activities that facilitate team problem solving, trust, relationship building, and the clarification of role responsibilities • Normally conducted by a consultant • Examples include rope courses, scavenger hunts • Difficult to judge the effectiveness of team building activities on team performance ©McGraw-Hill Education. Next Time Chapter 13: Leadership: Power and Negotiation ©McGraw-Hill Education. Chapter 13 Leadership: Power and Negotiation ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Class Agenda Leadership: Power and Negotiation Why Are Some Leaders More Powerful than Others? • Acquiring power • Using influence • Power and influence in action • Negotiations How Important Are Power and Influence? Application: Alternative Dispute Resolution ©McGraw-Hill Education. An Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Leadership: Power and Negotiation Leadership is the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement. • When you think of “effective leaders,” who do you think of? • The chapter focus is on how leaders get their power and influence and how they use it in organizations. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Why Are Some Leaders More Powerful Than Others? Power is the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return. Just because a person has the ability to influence others does not mean they will choose to do so. Power can be seen as the ability to resist the influence attempts of others. ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Voicing a dissent opinion • Refusing to perform a specific behavior • Organizing an opposition group of coworkers Acquiring Power Organizational power derives from a person’s position within an organization. • Legitimate power is based on a position of authority in an organization. • Reward power is based on control of resources or benefits. • Coercive power is based on ability to punish. Personal power derives from the individual. ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Expert power is based on expertise, skill, or knowledge. • Referent power exists when others have a desire to identify and be associated with a person. Figure 13-1 Types of Power Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Table 13-1 Fortune’s 15 Most Powerful Women in Business in 2018 RANK NAME COMPANY POSITION AGE 1 Marilyn Hewson Lockheed Martin Chairman, CEO, and president 64 2 Mary Barra General Motors Chairman and CEO 56 3 Abigail Johnson Fidelity Investments Chairman and CEO 56 4 Ginni Rometty IBM Chairman, CEO, and president 61 5 Gail Boudreaux Anthem President and CEO 56 6 Sheryl Sandberg Facebook COO 49 7 Safra Katz Oracle Co-CEO 56 8 Phebe Novakovic General Dynamics Chairman and CEO 60 9 Ruth Porat Google, Alphabet SVP and CFO 60 10 Susan Wojcicki Google, Alphabet CEO, YouTube 50 11 Lynn Good Duke Energy Chairman, CEO, and president 59 12 Angela Ahrendts Apple Senior vice president, Retail and Online Stores 58 13 Tricia Griffith Progressive President and CEO 53 14 Judith McKenna Walmart Int’l President and CEO 52 15 Karen Lynch Aetna President 55 Source: Bellstrom, K., G. Donnelly, M. Heimer, E. Hinchliffe, A. Jenkins, B. Kowitt, M. Rodriguez, L. Segarra, L. Shen, J. Vanian, P. Wahba, and J. Wieczner. “Most Powerful Women.” Fortune 178, no. 4 (October 1, 2018): pp. 58–69. ©McGraw-Hill Education. OB on Screen ©McGraw-Hill Education. Expert Power 1 STRONGLY DISAGREE 2 DISAGREE 3 NEUTRAL 4 AGREE 5 STRONGLY AGREE 1. I can provide others with the technical details that they need in their work. 2. I can give others advice that flows from my unique expertise. 3. I have skills and training that I can share with others to improve their work. 4. I am able to provide sound technical suggestions to my colleagues. Average Score: 14 ©McGraw-Hill Education. Referent Power 1 STRONGLY DISAGREE 2 DISAGREE 3 NEUTRAL 4 AGREE 5 STRONGLY AGREE 1. I can make others feel a sense of pride. 2. I can give others a sense of importance. 3. I can make others feel a sense of value. 4. I can serve as a positive role model to others. Average Score: 12 ©McGraw-Hill Education. Table 13-2 Guidelines for Using Power TYPE OF POWER GUIDELINES FOR USE Legitimate • Stay within the rights your position holds. • Communicate your request politely. • Make sure you describe the purpose of your request. Reward • Propose rewards that are attractive. • Only offer what you can follow through on. • Be clear on exactly what you are offering a reward for. Coercive • Warn people prior to giving punishment. • Make sure punishment is fair relative to the nature of the lack of compliance. • Follow through quickly and without discrimination or bias. Expert • Put forth data or other evidence to support your proposal. • Communicate why the request is important and the justification for it. • Be consistent, thoughtful, and honest about requests. Referent • Follow through on commitments. • Do things for others even when not required to do so. • Support and uphold others when called for. Source: For a more detailed list of guidelines and discussion, see Yukl, Gary A. Leadership in Organizations, 7th ed. (c) 2010. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Contingency Factors Substitutability: Having alternatives in accessing resources Discretion: Having the right to make decisions on their own Centrality: How important a person’s job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasks Visibility: How aware others are of a leader and the resources that leader can provide Leaders are better able to use their power when they have: • Low substitutability • High discretion • High centrality • High visibility ©McGraw-Hill Education. Table 13-3 The Contingencies of Power ©McGraw-Hill Education. CONTINGENCY LEADER’S ABILITY TO INFLUENCE OTHERS INCREASES WHEN . . . Substitutability There are no substitutes for the rewards or resources the leader controls. Centrality The leader’s role is important and interdependent with others in the organization. Discretion The leader has the freedom to make his or her own decisions without being restrained by organizational rules. Visibility Others know about the leader and the resources he or she can provide. Using Influence Influence: The use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitudinal changes in others • Most frequently occurs downward (managers influencing employees) • Can also be lateral (peers influencing peers) or upward (employees influencing managers) • Relativity: the degree of disparity between the influencer and the influencee ©McGraw-Hill Education. Most Effective Influence Tactics Leaders depend on a number of tactics to cause behavioral or attitudinal changes in others: • Rational persuasion: Using logical arguments and facts • Inspirational appeal: Appealing to values and ideals to create an emotional reaction • Consultation: Allowing target to participate in decision • Collaboration: Working together to maximize outcomes ©McGraw-Hill Education. Moderately Effective Influence Tactics Tactics that are sometimes effective: • Ingratiation: Using favors, compliments or friendly behavior • Personal appeal: Appealing to personal friendship or loyalty • Apprising: Explaining how the target will personally benefit ©McGraw-Hill Education. Least Effective Influence Tactics Least effective tactics: • Pressure: Using coercive power through threats or demands • Coalitions: Enlisting others to help influence the target • Exchange tactic: Offering a reward or resource in return for performing a request ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 13-2 Influence Tactics and Their Effectiveness Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Responses to Influence Tactics People have three possible responses to influence tactics: • Internalization: Both behavior and attitude shift to agreement • Compliance: Behavior shifts to agreement but attitude does not • Resistance: Neither behavior nor attitude shifts to agreement ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 13-3 Responses to Influence Attempts Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Power and Influence in Action Leaders can use their power and influence in a number of ways, including: • Navigating the political environment in the organization • Resolving conflicts within the organization ©McGraw-Hill Education. Organizational Politics Actions by individuals that are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interests Political skill: Understanding others at work and using that knowledge to influence others in ways that enhance personal and/or organizational objectives ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Networking ability is an adeptness at identifying and developing contacts. • Social astuteness is the tendency to observe others and accurately interpret their behavior. • Interpersonal influence involves having a personal style that’s flexible enough to adapt to different situations. • Apparent sincerity involves appearing to others to have high levels of honesty and genuineness. Political Skill Assessment Source: For a more detailed measure of political skill, see G.R. Ferris, D.C. Treadway, R.W. Kolodinsky, W.A. Hochwarter, C.J. Kacmar, C. Douglas, and D.D. Frink, “Development and Validation of the Political Skill Inventory,” Journal of Management 31 (2005), pp. 126–52. Average Score: 23 Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Negative Effects of Organizational Politics People’s perceptions of politics are generally negative. Environments that are perceived as extremely political can: ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Lower job satisfaction • Increase strain • Lower job performance • Increase turnover intentions • Lower organizational commitment Figure 13-4 The Causes and Consequences of Organizational Politics Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Conflict Resolution Conflict: when two or more individuals perceive that their goals are in opposition Conflict resolution is influenced by two factors: • How assertive leaders want to be in pursuing their own goals • How cooperative they are with regard to the concerns of others Five different styles of conflict resolution: • Competing (high assertiveness, low cooperation) • Avoiding (low assertiveness, low cooperation) • Accommodating (low assertiveness, high cooperation • Collaboration (high assertiveness, high cooperation) • Compromise (moderate assertiveness, moderate cooperation) ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 13-5 Styles of Conflict Resolution Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Table 13-4 When to Use the Various Conflict Resolution Styles RESOLUTION STYLE USE DURING THE FOLLOWING SITUATIONS: Competing • A quick decision is really important. • When you believe you are right, other solutions are wrong, and there is no middle ground. • When someone will try to leverage your unwillingness to compete against you. Avoiding • • • • • Collaborating • When both parties have legitimate concerns and compromise won’t solve the problem. • When different perspectives or learning might help arrive at a better alternative. • To build commitment by working together toward a consensus decision. Accommodating • • • • If you arrive at the conclusion that your choice or solution is wrong or that an alternative is better. When you want to show that you are reasonable and/or to build up credit with others. When others care substantially more about the outcome than you do and the ongoing relationship is important. If you are going to lose and want to preserve your dignity. Compromising • • • • • When a strong approach isn’t worth the damage it might cause. If both parties are committed to their choices and they are equally powerful. Arriving at an interim solution allows you to examine a complicated issue more fully. When time pressure doesn’t allow for a protracted resolution. When other approaches haven’t worked. If the issue is not as important as others from a timing perspective. When there is no acceptable alternative and you can’t win. Arriving at a solution will cause more strife than a solution is worth. When people’s emotions are running high and backing off might help to come up with a resolution. If acquiring more information would help to arrive at a better solution. Source: Adapted from Thomas, K. W. “Toward Multi-Dimensional Values in Teaching: The Example of Conflict Behaviors.” Academy of Management Review (1977): pp. 484–490. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Negotiations A process in which two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to an agreement about their different preferences Negotiation strategies include: • Distributive bargaining: win-lose style with fixed pie, zero sum conditions • Integrative bargaining: win-win style utilizing mutual respect and problem solving ©McGraw-Hill Education. Negotiation Stages Regardless of strategy used, negotiation typically goes through a series of stages: 1. Preparation: Each party determines goals and alternatives. 2. Exchanging information: Each party makes a case for its position. 3. Bargaining: Both parties must likely make concessions. 4. Closing and commitment: The agreement is formalized. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Negotiator Biases Perceived power relationship between the parties is an important factor. • When negotiators perceive themselves as having more power than the other party, they tend to demand more and concede less. (distributive approach) • When negotiators perceive themselves as relatively equal in power, they take a more integrative approach. Negotiator emotions, both positive and negative, can negatively influence negotiation success. • Positive emotions may lead to agreeing too quickly. • Negative emotions may lower judgment accuracy. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 13-6 Why Are Some Leaders More Powerful Than Others? Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. How Important Are Power and Influence? Power and influence are moderately correlated with job performance and organizational commitment. Effective use of power and influence can • Create internalization • Increase citizenship behavior • Decrease counterproductive behavior • Increase the motivation levels of employees • Increase job satisfaction ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 13-7 Effects of Power and Influence on Performance and Commitment Source: R.T. Sparrowe, B.W. Soetjipto, and M.L. Kraimer, “Do Leaders’ Influence Tactics Relate to Members’ Helping Behavior? It Depends on the Quality of the Relationship,” Academy of Management Journal 49 (2006), pp. 1194–1208; G. Yukl, H. Kim, and C.M. Falbe, “Antecedents of Influence Outcomes,” Journal of Applied Psychology 81 (1996), pp. 309–17; and P.P. Carson, K.D. Carson, and C.W. Rowe, “Social Power Bases: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Interrelationships and Outcomes,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 23 (1993), pp. 1150–69. Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Application: Alternative Dispute Resolution A process by which two parties resolve conflicts through the use of a specially trained, neutral third party • Mediation requires a third party to facilitate the dispute resolution process, though this third party has no formal authority to dictate a solution. • Arbitration occurs when a third party determines a binding settlement to a dispute. Traditionally, mediation is used first and then arbitration if parties are unable to come to an agreement. Some research suggests flipping the order may lead to better results. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Next Time Chapter 14: Leadership: Styles and Behaviors ©McGraw-Hill Education. Chapter 14 Leadership: Styles and Behaviors ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Class Agenda Leadership: Styles and Behaviors Why Are Some Leaders More Effective than Others? • Leader Decision-Making Styles • Day-to-Day Leadership Behaviors • Transformational Leadership Behaviors How Important is Leadership? Application: Leadership Training ©McGraw-Hill Education. An Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Leadership: Styles and Behaviors The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement How leaders use their power and influence in an effective way Several measures to judge leader effectiveness: ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Objective evaluations of unit performance • Focus on followers, such as absenteeism, retention of talented employees, etc. • Employee surveys on perceived performance of the leader Table 14-1 Employee-Centered Measures of Leader Effectiveness 1 of 2 Unit-Focused Approach Ask all members of the unit to fill out the following survey items, then average the responses across the group to get a measure of leader effectiveness. 1. My supervisor is effective in meeting our job-related needs. 2. My supervisor uses methods of leadership that are satisfying. 3. My supervisor gets us to do more than we expected to do. 4. My supervisor is effective in representing us to higher authority. 5. My supervisor works with us in a satisfactory way. 6. My supervisor heightens our desire to succeed. 7. My supervisor is effective in meeting organizational requirements. 8. My supervisor increases our willingness to try harder. 9. My supervisor leads a group that is effective. Sources: Adapted from Bass, B., and B. Avolio. MLQ Manual. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden, Inc., 2004; and Graen, G. B., and M. Uhl-Bien. “Relationship-Based Approach to Leadership: Development of Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory of Leadership over 25 Years: Applying a Multi-Level Multi-Domain Perspective.” Leadership Quarterly 6 (1995): pp. 219–247. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Table 14-1 Employee-Centered Measures of Leader Effectiveness 2 of 2 Dyad-Focused Approach Ask members of the unit to fill out the following survey items in reference to their particular relationship with the leader. The responses are not averaged across the group; rather, differences across people indicate differentiation into “ingroups” and “outgroups” within the unit. 1. I always know how satisfied my supervisor is with what I do. 2. My supervisor understands my problems and needs well enough. 3. My supervisor recognizes my potential. 4. My supervisor would use his/her power to help me solve work problems. 5. I can count on my supervisor to “bail me out” at his/her expense if I need it. 6. My working relationship with my supervisor is extremely effective. 7. I have enough confidence in my supervisor to defend and justify his/her decisions when he/she is not present to do so. Sources: Adapted from Bass, B., and B. Avolio. MLQ Manual. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden, Inc., 2004; and Graen, G. B., and M. Uhl-Bien. “Relationship-Based Approach to Leadership: Development of Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory of Leadership over 25 Years: Applying a Multi-Level Multi-Domain Perspective.” Leadership Quarterly 6 (1995): pp. 219–247. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Leader-Member Exchange Theory Describes how leader-member relationships develop over time on a dyadic basis • Role taking phase involves leader providing employee with job expectations and the follower tries to meet those expectations. • Role making phase involves exchange of opportunities and resources based on follower voicing expectations for the relationship. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 14-1 Leader-Member Exchange Theory Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Leader-Member Exchange Quality Assessment 1 2 STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE 3 4 NEUTRAL AGREE 5 STRONGLY AGREE 1. I have a close working relationship with my supervisor. 2. I have confidence in the actions and intentions of my supervisor. 3. My supervisor and I are close enough to back each other up when needed. 4. I would use my power to help my supervisor, and I know he/she would do the same. 5. My supervisor and I both understand each other’s likes and dislikes. 6. My supervisor understands my needs, and vice versa. 7. My supervisor and I always know where we stand with one another. Average Score: 24 ©McGraw-Hill Education. Why Are Some Leaders More Effective Than Others? Leader effectiveness is the degree to which the leader’s actions result in the following: • Achievement of the unit’s goals • Continued commitment of the unit’s employees • Development of mutual trust, respect, and obligation in leader-member dyads Not possible to identify effective leaders based on physical traits, personality, or ability Possible, however, to identify traits associated with leadership emergence (that is, who becomes a leader in the first place) ©McGraw-Hill Education. Table 14-2 Traits/Characteristics Related to Leader Emergence and Effectiveness Description of Trait/Characteristic Linked to Emergence? Linked to Effectiveness? High conscientiousness Low agreeableness yes yes no no Low neuroticism High openness to experience High extraversion High general cognitive ability High energy level High stress tolerance High self-confidence no yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes Sources: Adapted from T.A. Judge, J.E. Bono, R. Ilies, and M.W. Gerhardt, “Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review,” Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (2002), pp. 765–80; T.A. Judge, A.E. Colbert, and R. Ilies, “Intelligence and Leadership: A Quantitative Review and Test of Theoretical Propositions,” Journal of Applied Psychology 89 (2004), pp. 542–52; and G. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 4th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998). ©McGraw-Hill Education. Leader Decision-Making Styles A leader’s decision-making style reflects the process the leader uses to generate and choose from a set of alternatives to solve a problem. Decision-making styles capture how a leader decides as opposed to what a leader decides. These styles vary in how much control is retained by the leader and how much control is given to the followers. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Defining the Styles Autocratic style: Leader makes the decision alone without asking for the opinions or suggestions of the employees in the work unit. Consultative style: Leader presents the problem to individual employees or a group of employees, asking for their opinions and suggestions before ultimately making the decision him- or herself. Facilitative style: Leader presents the problem to a group of employees and seeks consensus on a solution, making sure that his or her own opinion receives no more weight than anyone else’s. Delegative style: Leader gives an individual employee or a group of employees the responsibility for making the decision. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 14-2 Leader Decision-Making Styles Is there likely to be one best style? What factors might impact the appropriateness of the various styles? Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Time-Driven Model of Leadership 1 of 2 Seven factors combine to make some decision-making styles more effective than others: ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Decision significance • Importance of commitment • Leader expertise • Likelihood of commitment • Shared objectives • Employee expertise • Teamwork skills Time-Driven Model of Leadership 2 of 2 Scientific support • In one study, following the model resulted in effective decisions 68% of the time. • Not following the model resulted in effective decisions 22% of the time. Leaders’ instincts usually violate the model. • Leaders overuse consultative styles and underutilize autocratic and facilitative. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 14-3 The Time-Driven Model of Leadership Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Day-to Day Leadership Behaviors 1 of 2 Leaders engage in about 1,800 behaviors in 8 categories: ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Initiation • Organization • Production • Membership • Integration • Communication • Recognition • Representation Day-to-Day Leadership Behaviors 2 of 2 Two broad dimensions encompass day-to-day leadership behaviors: • Initiating structure: the extent to which the leader defines and structure the roles of employees for goal attainment • Consideration: the extent to which leaders creating job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect, and consideration of employees’ feelings Might the importance of initiating structure and consideration vary across followers and situations? ©McGraw-Hill Education. Table 14-3 Day-to-Day Behaviors Performed by Leaders Source: Stogdill, R. M. Manual for the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire-Form XII. Bureau of Business Research, The Ohio State University, 1963. Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Initiating Structure and Consideration Assessment Average Score: 38 Average Score: 40 Source: R.M. Stogdill, Manual for the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire–Form XII (Columbus, OH: Bureau of Business Research, The Ohio State University, 1963). ©McGraw-Hill Education. Access the text alternative for slide images Life Cycle Theory of Leadership The optimal combination of initiating structure and consideration depends on the readiness of the employees in the work unit. • Also called the situational model of leadership • Readiness: the degree to which employees have the ability and the willingness to accomplish their specific tasks Leader behaviors based on readiness of work unit: ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Telling: Leader provides specific instructions and closely supervises performance. • Selling: Leader provides support and encouragement to protect the confidence levels of the employees. • Participating: Leader shares ideas and helps the group conduct its affairs. • Delegating: Leader turns responsibility for key behaviors over to the employees. Figure 14-4 The Life Cycle Theory of Leadership Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Something Is Missing Think about the most effective leaders you can name. Do the leader behaviors and styles discussed thus far capture what it was that made these leaders so effective? So what’s missing? ©McGraw-Hill Education. Transformational Leadership Behaviors 1 of 2 Transformational leadership • Inspires followers to commit to a shared vision that provides meaning to their work • Establishes the leader as a role model who helps followers reach their potential Laissez-faire leadership is the absence of action. Transactional leadership relies on rewards and punishments. ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Passive management by exception • Active management by exception • Contingent reward Figure 14-5 Laissez-Faire, Transactional, and Transformational Leadership Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Transformational Leadership Behaviors 2 of 2 Four dimensions of transformational leadership called “the Four I’s”: ©McGraw-Hill Education. • Idealized influence: Behaviors earn the admiration, trust, and respect of followers, causing followers to want to emulate the leader. • Inspirational motivation: Behaviors foster an enthusiasm for and commitment to a shared vision. • Intellectual stimulation: Behaviors challenge followers to be innovative and creative. • Individualized consideration: Behaviors help followers achieve their potential through mentoring. OB on Screen Darkest Hour ©McGraw-Hill Education. Table 14-4 Transformational Rhetoric among U.S. Presidents PRESIDENT Abraham Lincoln TERM REMARK WHICH “I”? 1861–1865 “Fourscore and seven years ago our forefathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.” Idealized influence Franklin Roosevelt 1933–1945 “First of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself—nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.” Inspirational motivation John F. Kennedy 1961–1963 “And so, my fellow Americans … ask not what your country can do you for you—ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: Ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.” Intellectual stimulation Lyndon Johnson 1963–1969 “If future generations are to remember us more with gratitude than sorrow, we must achieve more than just the miracles of technology. We must also leave them a glimpse of the world as it was created, not just as it looked when we got through with it.” Idealized influence Ronald Reagan 1981–1989 “General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!” Idealized influence Bill Clinton 1993–2001 “To realize the full possibilities of this economy, we must reach beyond our own borders, to shape the revolution that is tearing down barriers and building new networks among nations and individuals, and economies and cultures: globalization. It’s the central reality of our time.” Intellectual stimulation Sources: Mio, J. S., R. E. Riggio, S. Levin, and R. Reese. “Presidential Leadership and Charisma: The Effects of Metaphor.” Leadership Quarterly 16 (2005): pp. 287–294; http://www.usa-patriotism.com/quotes/_list.htm. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Transformational Leadership Assessment 1 2 STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE 3 4 NEUTRAL AGREE 5 STRONGLY AGREE 1. I inspire others through my actions. 2. I serve as a role model for the values that I hold. 3. I encourage others to come at problems from new angles. 4. I act in a way that builds a sense of trustworthiness. 5. I do things to encourage the development of the people around me. 6. I communicate an optimistic vision for our work. Average Score: 18 ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 14-6 Why Are Some Leaders More Effective Than Others? Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. How Important Is Leadership? Transformational leadership affects the job performance of the employees who report to the leader. • Higher levels of task performance • Higher levels of citizenship behaviors • Higher levels of motivation and empowerment • Set more demanding work goals Transformational leadership affects the organizational commitment of employees who report to the leader. • Stronger emotional bond with the organization • Stronger sense of obligation to remain engaged in the work • Have higher levels of job satisfaction • Feel more optimism and less frustration ©McGraw-Hill Education. Figure 14-7 Effects of Transformational Leadership on Performance and Commitment Sources: T.A. Judge and R.F. Piccolo, “Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Relative Validity,” Journal of Applied Psychology 89 (2004), pp. 755–68; J.P. Meyer, D.J. Stanley, L. Herscovitch, and L. Topolnytsky, “Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 61 (2002), pp. 20–52; and P.M. Podsakoff, S.B. MacKenzie, J.B. Paine, and D.G. Bachrach, “Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research,” Journal of Management 26 (2000), pp. 513–63. Access the text alternative for slide images ©McGraw-Hill Education. Substitutes for the Leadership Model Characteristics of the situations can constrain the influence of the leader, making it more difficult for the leader to influence employee performance. Substitutes reduce the importance of the leader while providing a benefit to employee performance. • For example, a cohesive work group that provides its own governing behaviors, motivation, and job satisfaction Neutralizers reduce the importance of the leader without improving employee performance in any way. • For example, spatial distance ©McGraw-Hill Education. Table 14-5 Leader Substitutes and Neutralizers SUBSTITUTES DESCRIPTION Task feedback Receiving feedback on performance from the task itself Training & experience Gaining the knowledge to act independently of the leader Professionalism Having a professional specialty that offers guidance Staff support Receiving information and assistance from outside staff Group cohesion Working in a close-knit and interdependent work group Intrinsic satisfaction Deriving personal satisfaction from one’s work NEUTRALIZERS DESCRIPTION Task stability Having tasks with a clear, unchanging sequence of steps Formalization Having written policies and procedures that govern one’s job Inflexibility Working in an organization that prioritizes rule adherence Spatial distance Being separated from one’s leader by physical space Source: Adapted from Kerr, S., and J. M. Jermier. “Substitutes for Leadership: Their Meaning and Measurement.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 22 (1978): pp. 375–403. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Application: Leadership Training Organizations spend more than $150 billion on employee learning and development, and much of it is devoted to management and supervisory training. • Can be specific, such methods for conducting performance evaluations • Can focus on leader behaviors such as initiating structure and consideration Research shows that training programs focused on transformational leadership have been effective in increasing performance and organizational commitment of employees. ©McGraw-Hill Education. Next Time Chapter 15: Organizational Structure ©McGraw-Hill Education.
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