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CHAPTER 10 Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches ‫أساليب التعامل مع األشخاص‬ ‫والمجموعات‬ ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.  Understand the diagnostic issues associated with interpersonal relations and group dynamics interventions.  Illustrate the principles of the process consultation intervention.  Describe the process of third-party conflict resolution.  Discuss and evaluate the core organization development (OD) intervention of team building. 2 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Process Interventions ‫التدخالت العملية‬ A set of activities on the part of the consultant that helps group members understand, diagnose, and improve their behaviors to devise more effective ways of working. Interventions are aimed at helping the group become better able to use its own resources to identify and solve interpersonal problems and devise more effective ways of working. ‫مجموعة من األنشطة من جانب االستشاري تساعد أعضاء المجموعة على فهم وتشخيص وتحسين‬ .‫سلوكياتهم الستنباط طرق أكثر فعالية للعمل‬ ‫تهدف التدخالت إلى مساعدة المجموعة على أن تصبح أكثر قدرة على استخدام مواردها الخاصة لتحديد‬ .‫ المشكالت الشخصية واستنباط طرق أكثر فاعلية للعمل‬3‫وحل‬ ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Process Consultation ‫عملية التشاور‬  Definition  The creation of a relationship that permits the client to perceive, understand, and act on the process events  An approach that helps people and groups help themselves ‫ إنشاء عالقة تتيح للعميل إدراك أحداث العملية وفهمها والتصرف فيها‬:‫التعريف‬  ‫نهج يساعد الناس والمجموعات على مساعدة أنفسهم‬   Group Process Issues  Communications  The functional roles of group members  Group problem solving and decision making  Group norms  Leadership and authority ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 4 Basic Process Interventions ‫التدخالت العملية األساسية‬  Individual Interventions  Aimed at helping people better communicate with others  Johari Window  Group Interventions  Aimed at the process, content or structure of the group ‫التدخالت الفردية‬ ‫تهدف إلى مساعدة الناس على التواصل بشكل أفضل مع اآلخرين‬ ‫نافذة جوهري‬ ‫تدخالت المجموعة‬ ‫تهدف إلى عملية أو محتوى أو بنية المجموعة‬      5 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Johari Window Unknown to Others Known to Others Hidden Spot Open Window Known to Self Unknown Window Blind Spot Unknown to Self 6 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Improving Communications Using the Johari Window Unknown to Others Reduce Hidden Area through Disclosure to Others Known to Others Open Window Reduce Blind Spot through Feedback from Others Known to Self Unknown to Self 7 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Third-Party Interventions ‫تدخالت الطرف الثالث‬  Activities that focus on interpersonal conflicts within the organization  Interventions help involved parties interact with each other directly, facilitating diagnosis of the conflict and its resolution ‫ األنشطة التي تركز على النزاعات الشخصية داخل‬ ‫المنظمة‬ ‫ تساعد التدخالت األطراف المعنية على التفاعل مع‬ ‫ مما يسهل تشخيص‬، ‫بعضها البعض بشكل مباشر‬ ‫النزاع وحله‬ 8 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Cyclical Model of Interpersonal Conflict Behavior Triggering Event Issues Triggering Event Issues Consequences Episode 1 Behavior Consequences Episode 2 9 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Strategies for Conflict Resolution ‫استراتيجيات حل النزاعات‬  Determine a clear understanding of the triggering factors and prevent the conflict through mandate  Set limits on the timing and extent of the conflict  Help the parties to cope differently with the conflict  Attempt to eliminate or resolve the basic issues in the conflict 10 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Team Building Activities ‫أنشطة بناء الفريق‬  Determine the Intervention Target  One or more individuals  A group’s operation and behavior  A group’s relationships with the rest of the organization  Determine the Intervention Orientation  Diagnostic  Developmental 11 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Types of Teams ‫أنواع الفرق‬  Groups reporting to the same manager  Groups involving people with common goals  Temporary groups formed to accomplish a specific, one-time task  Groups consisting of people whose work roles are interdependent  Groups with no formal links but whose collective purpose requires coordination 12 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Focus of Team Building Interventions ‫التركيز على التدخالت بناء الفريق‬  Individual Behavior in the Group  Alter the group’s ongoing processes by focusing on the behaviors and attitudes of individual members  Group Operation and Behavior  An inward look by the team at its own performance, behavior and culture for the purpose of improving effectiveness  Group Relationships with the Organization  Understand the group’s role within the organization including interaction, support, and collaboration  Manager’s Role ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 13 CHAPTER 11 Organization Process Approaches ‫نهج عملية المنظمة‬ ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.  Understand the diagnostic issues associated with organization-wide process interventions.  Demonstrate the organization confrontation meeting.  Compare the intergroup relations interventions of microcosm groups and intergroup conflict.  Describe and evaluate the effectiveness of large- group interventions. 2 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Diagnostic Issues in Organization Process Interventions ‫مشاكل التشخيص في التدخالت العملية المنظمة‬ Organization process approaches are driven by diagnostic data collected at the organization level. OD practitioners should be able to clearly articulate a sound business case as to how the environmental pressures or organization design features constraining current effectiveness will be addressed by the process intervention. .‫تعتمد أساليب عملية التنظيم على البيانات التشخيصية التي يتم جمعها على مستوى المؤسسة‬ ‫يجب أن يكون ممارسو التطوير التنظيمي قادرين على توضيح حالة عمل سليمة بوضوح حول كيفية معالجة الضغوط‬ .‫البيئية أو ميزات تصميم المؤسسة التي تقيد الفعالية الحالية من خالل تدخل العملية‬ 3 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Organization Confrontation Meeting ‫اجتماع مواجهة المنظمة‬ The confrontation meeting is an intervention designed to mobilize the resources of the entire organization to identify problems, set priorities and action targets and begin working on identified problems. ‫اجتماع المواجهة عبارة عن تدخل يهدف إلى تعبئة موارد‬ ‫المنظمة بأكملها لتحديد المشكالت وتحديد األولويات‬ ‫وأهداف العمل وبدء العمل على حل المشكالت المحددة‬ 4 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Confrontation Meeting Process Schedule the Meeting Create groups representing multiple perspectives Set ground rules Groups identify problems and opportunities Report out to the large group Create a master list Form problem-solving groups Rank the issues and opportunities, develop an action plan, specify timetable Provide periodic reports to large group 5 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Intergroup Relations Interventions ‫تدخالت العالقات بين المجموعات‬  The quality of group relationships in an organization can affect how well the organization performs  Two major interventions  Microcosm Groups  Resolving Intergroup Conflict ‫ يمكن أن تؤثر جودة عالقات المجموعة في المؤسسة على‬ ‫مستوى أداء المؤسسة‬ ‫ اثنين من التدخالت الرئيسية‬ ‫ مجموعات مصغرة‬ ‫ حل الصراع بين المجموعات‬ 6 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Microcosm Groups ‫مجموعات مصغرة‬  Small groups that solve problems in the larger system  Small group member characteristics must reflect the issue being addressed (e.g., if addressing diversity, group must be diverse)  Primary mechanism for change is “parallel processes” ‫المجموعات الصغيرة التي تحل المشكالت في النظام األكبر‬ ، ‫ إذا كانت معالجة التنوع‬، ‫يجب أن تعكس خصائص أعضاء المجموعة الصغيرة المشكلة التي يتم معالجتها (على سبيل المثال‬ )‫يجب أن تكون المجموعة متنوعة‬ “‫اآللية األساسية للتغيير هي “العمليات الموازية‬ ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.    7 Microcosm Group Process ‫عملية مجموعة مصغرة‬  Identify an issue  Convene the microcosm group  Provide group training  Address the issue in the group  Dissolve the group ‫ تحديد مشكلة‬ ‫ عقد المجموعة المصغرة‬ ‫ توفير التدريب الجماعي‬ ‫ معالجة المشكلة في المجموعة‬ ‫ حل المجموعة‬ ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 8 Resolving Intergroup Conflict‫حل الصراع بين‬ ‫المجموعات‬  Groups and consultant convene to address issues  Groups are asked to address three questions  What qualities/attributes best describe our group?  What qualities/attributes best describe their group?  How do we think the other group will describe us?  Groups exchange and clarify answers  Groups analyze the discrepancies and work to understand their contribution to the perceptions  Groups discuss discrepancies and contributions  Groups work to develop action plans on key areas 9 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Large Group Interventions ‫تدخالت المجموعة الكبيرة‬  Focus on issues affecting the whole organization or large segments of it, such as developing new products or services, responding to environmental change or introducing new technology ‫ مثل تطوير منتجات أو خدمات‬، ‫ركز على المشكالت التي تؤثر على المؤسسة بأكملها أو شرائح كبيرة منها‬ ‫جديدة أو االستجابة للتغير البيئي أو إدخال تكنولوجيا جديدة‬   Various Change Programs Search Conferences  Open-Space Meetings  Open-Systems Planning  World Cafés  Decision Accelerators  Appreciative Inquiry Summits  ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 10 Large Group Meeting Assumptions ‫افتراضات اجتماع المجموعة الكبيرة‬  Organization members’ perceptions play a major role in environmental relations  Organization members must share a common view of the environment to permit coordinated action toward it  Organization members’ perceptions must accurately reflect the condition of the environment if organizational responses are to be effective  Large group processes must create conditions for ownership and commitment ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 11 Large Group Meeting Process ‫عملية اجتماع المجموعة الكبيرة‬  Preparing for the large-group meeting  Identify a compelling meeting theme  Select appropriate stakeholders to participate  Develop relevant tasks to address meeting theme  Conducting the meeting  Open Systems Methods  Open Space Methods  Positive Methods  Following up on the meeting outcomes 12 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Open-Systems Methods ‫أساليب النظم المفتوحة‬  Map the current environment facing the organization  Assess the organization’s responses to the environmental expectations  Identify the core mission of the organization  Create a realistic future scenario of environmental expectations and organization responses  Create an ideal future scenario of environmental expectations and organization responses  Compare the present with the ideal future and prepare an action plan for reducing the discrepancy 13 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Open-Space Methods‫أساليب الفضاء المفتوح‬  Set the conditions for self-organizing  Announce the theme of the session  Establish norms for the meetings  The “Law of Two Feet”  The “Four Principles” – “Whoever comes are the right people.” – “Whatever happens is the only thing that could have.” – “Whenever it starts is the right time.” – “When it is over, it is over.”  Participants create the agenda  Coordinate activity through information postings ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 14 Positive Methods‫طرق إيجابية‬  Discover the organization’s positive core  Dream about and envision a more desired and fulfilling future  Design the structural and systems arrangements that will best reflect and support the vision or dream  Create the specific action plans that will fulfill the organization’s destiny ‫ اكتشف جوهر المنظمة اإليجابي‬ ‫ تحلم وتصور مستقبل أكثر رغبة والوفاء‬ ‫ صمم الترتيبات الهيكلية واألنظمة التي تعكس الرؤية أو الحلم‬ ‫وتدعمها على أفضل وجه‬ ‫ ضع خطط عمل محددة تفي بمصير المنظمة‬ ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 15

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