(Mt) – Saudi Electronic University Leadership Approaches Management Essay

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CH1: public administration : – as formation and implementation of public policy – academic and professionals fields – the implementation of policy for government Policy process : Steps : ‫مع‬ ‫الشرح لكل وحدة‬ Essential characteristic of government: – collection revenue -government work force -government expenditures :‫باالضافة‬ -universal interest. -political balance – rule of law. Who are public servants : who are commitment to continues improvement for example : policy officer , health officer , firefighters Ch2: Discuss the human side of organizational management. -Theory X and theory Y Theory X: Assumes that individuals dislike work, and they avoid it whenever possible. This makes intense supervision necessary, because workers typically shun responsibility and are frequently incapable of solving problems. Under Theory X, workers are motivated by: Economic factors, threats, and punishment. This theory represents a classical Weberian closed model, which is reminiscent of a quasi-military structure. ‫ هذا يجعل إشراف مكثف‬.‫ وأنهم يتجنبونه كلما أمكن ذلك‬، ‫يفترض أن األفراد ال يحبون العمل‬ ‫ ألن العمال عادة ما يتحملون المسؤولية وغالبا ما يكونون عاجزين عن حل المشاكل‬، ‫ضروري‬. ‫ تحت النظرية‬X ‫ يتم تحفيز العمال من قبل‬،: ، ‫ تمثل هذه النظرية نموذ ًجا كالسيكيًا مغلقًا ويبيريًا‬.‫العوامل االقتصادية والتهديدات والعقاب‬ ‫الذي يذكرنا بهيكل شبه عسكري‬. Theory Y : is an open model that assumes that individuals enjoy work and embrace responsibility, and that most people are capable of self-direction and prefer not to be micromanaged. Theory Y further assumes that individuals possess the ingenuity to solve complex problems through creative means. According to this theory, management should afford its workers the latitude to achieve individual goals through self-directed efforts. This will help to achieve organizational goals ‫ وأن معظم الناس‬، ‫هو نموذج مفتوح يفترض أن األفراد يتمتعون بالعمل ويتقبلون المسؤولية‬ ‫ نظرية‬.‫ قادرون على التوجيه الذاتي ويفضلون عدم التدخل بشكل دقيق‬Y ‫يفترض كذلك أن األفراد‬ ‫تمتلك براعة في حل المشاكل المعقدة من خالل وسائل إبداعية‬. ‫ ينبغي على اإلدارة أن توفر لعمالها الحرية في تحقيق األهداف الفردية‬، ‫وفقا لهذه النظرية‬ ‫ هذا سوف يساعد على تحقيق األهداف التنظيمية‬.‫من خالل الجهود الذاتية‬ Differences between theories X&Y Theory Y, as it offers more realistic assumptions regarding human nature and human motivation. Theory X places a premium on “external controls,” while Theory Y relies heavily on “self-direction.” In other words, the difference between Theories X and Y is “the difference between treating people like children and treating them as mature adults” Theory X assumptions are less helpful, and Theory Y styles of management that recognize delegation of authority, job enlargement, and participation must receiver greater attention the contemporary theories : 6 ‫نظريات‬ • Structural Structural Theory assumes that organizations are rational in that they function to accomplish specific goals and objectives • Systems Systems theory is based on the premise that the organization is comprised of several interconnected parts Systems theory looks at the organization in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, and feedback mechanisms • Inputs refer to an organization’s resources, • Processes refer to what an organization does with its resources, • Outputs are the goods or services that an organization produces. • Feedback mechanisms are the means by which an organization collects and analyzes data regarding the impacts of its outputs • Quality In order for an agency or organization to increase its effectiveness and productivity Economic Organizational economic theory is strives to ensure that worker interests coincide with the organization’s interests • Culture Organizational culture refers to shared notions that bind together members of an organization, some of which include: • Group norms and values. • A guiding mission and formal rules that dictate what is and is not appropriate behavior. • Climate and environment. • Shared skills and modes of thinking. NPR National Performance Review Given the public pressure on government organizations to perform more effectively That government should: • Act as a catalyst • Empower rather than simply serve • Be competitive • Be mission-driven as opposed to rule-driven • Be results-oriented • Be customer-driven • Be enterprising • Anticipate social problems • Be decentralized • Be market-oriented Organization theory and 7s model organizational perspective 7s – strategy -bureaucracy -system- policies and procedures -style – style of leadership -staffing – HR , training , managing and motivating -skills -structure CH3: Managers who deal effectively with these concerns are more likely to achieve organizational goals. Public organizations are dependent on knowledgeable, industrious, enthusiastic workers and harmonious relations between managers and employees . human resource management dealt with standardizing personnel processes This requires the traditional human resource elements of: 1. Hiring the right workers to achieve an organization’s goals 2. Training and developing workers 3. Rewarding workers using monetary, as well as nonmonetary, psychological rewards human resource management systems have additional concerns. Key among those concerns, notes Naff (1993), are ‫يكفي نحفظ اربعه‬ -Creating and maintaining a diverse workforce -Affording workers a measure of power in the workplace -Enabling workers to fulfill and balance both work and family responsibilities -Enabling workers to hold their managers accountable for merit principles -Taking into account different ways of motivating workers; and -Identifying ways of fostering a culture of cooperation and teamwork in the workplace ‫في نظريتين لتشجيع الموظفين‬ 1- Maslow’s needs hierarchy 2- Herzberg two factor hypothesis Maslow’s needs hierarchy A Theory of Human Motivation,” states that motivation is predicated on five fundamental needs. At the lowest level of the hierarchy of needs are physiological needs, which deal with anything that is necessary to sustain life Safety needs refer not only to personal security but also the desire for an “ordered” and “predictable world” .This includes job security, financial security, and emotional security love emerges in the hierarchy. love refers to acceptance, friendship, affection, and a sense of belonging esteem needs, which are divided into two subgroups. The first refers to one’s desire to be recognized as strong, confident, and autonomous—in other words, feeling independent is central in this case. The second encompasses a desire for prestige and appreciation—in other words, anything that enhances one’s self-image. self-actualization entails fulfilling one’s inherent potential Herzberg two factor hypothesis: – Based on this, he developed the theory that people’s job satisfaction depends on two kinds of factors. Factors for satisfaction (motivators/satisfiers) and factors for dissatisfaction (hygiene factors/ dissatisfiers). Human resource development 1-supervision 2-training 3-motiviting 4-evaluationg 5-rewarding 6-managing CH 4: decision making steps ,process OR rational decision making ‫مهم مهم مهم مهم مهم مهم مهم‬ Decision making : choosing one course of action among other competing courses of actions step 1: comparing what happening and what should be happening , explain the problem before looking its solutions step2: define possible causes step3: effective objectives should be specific ,measurable , indicate who ,what, where ,when and how much step 4: use brainstorming to help generate ideas in the fields of advertising step 5 and 6 : evaluating each course of action against the objective allows the decision make choose the best course of action step 7: comparing the consequences with the objectives and see what is the positive and negative Decision making theoretical models : 1- rational model : grounded in economic principles  cost and values 2-adminstartive model : describe how decision are actually made 3-implicit favorite : the decision neither rational nor objective and unbiased 4-garbage can model : depends in the problem ,political and policy stream steer – the decision making process 5-partipatory model: assumes that a diverse group of individuals will act in consultation capacity What is dysfunctional : ‫هو الخلل الوظيفي او الغير احترافي او تعطيل النظام‬ ‫وهي المشكالت التي تواجه الببلك في االجراءات‬ CH5: Spoils system: is practice in which a political party after winning an election gives government civil service jobs to support , friends as reward for working toward victory The politics school : is that politics is very much a part of administration The relationship within them [iron triangles] is symbiotic; that is, each member of the triangle gets something that it needs from other members. The agency gets appropriations and new programs from the subcommittee, and the subcommittee gets support and information from the agency. The interest groups get policies and benefits from both the subcommittee and the agency, and the subcommittee gets support, information, and campaign contributions … from the interest groups. CH6: Intergovernmental Relations: refer to the collaborative dynamic, or working relationships, that exist among all levels of government—national, state, and local. federalism models: ‫يمكن لونق‬ 1- layer cake model 2-marble cake model 3-picket fence model 1- layer cake : The layer cake model envisions separate and distinct areas of authority between the national, state, and local governments. For example, this model assumes that the national government is primarily responsible for defending the nation, engaging in international diplomacy, and regulating interstate commerce. State governments are primarily responsible for overseeing education and infrastructure such as building bridges and roads. Local governments, which include county and municipal governments, are responsible for public safety, emergency services, and waste removal 2- marble cake: The marble cake model assumes that there are few hard-and-fast lines of distinction as to what constitutes national, state, or local responsibilities. Like a marble cake, governmental responsibilities are, at times, swirled or mixed 3- picket fence: The picket fence model of the federalist system is characterized by close fiscal relationships among the national, state, and local governments. These fiscal relationships emerged given the national government’s strong tax base, one that is less affected by the hills and valleys of a fluctuating economy types of shared service : 1- sharing personal : Sharing personnel is a straightforward concept. Smaller governmental units such as municipalities 2-sharing equipment: a partner model in which ownership is shared by each community owning an individual part of the entire piece of equipment 3-sharing internal services = service : Sharing internal services is ideal when the service function requires little interaction with the public 4- sharing external services = expertise : External services refer to agreements in which one governmental unit consents to provide essential services to another that no longer provides such services Privatization: employing the private sector or nonprofit sector to do work of government Ch7: TQM – Total Quality Management TQM is defined as “an enterprise Lifestyle that emphasizes customer satisfaction, excellent service and rapid adjustment To address ever-changing customer needs” The Key Elements of TQM 1. Leaders must develop purposes of the organization. 2. All must learn the new philosophy—including upper management. 3. All must understand the purpose of inspection. 4. Continuously improve systems of production and service. 5. Implement modern training methods. 6. Teach leadership. 7. Eliminate fear, build trust. 8. Encourage worker education and self-amelioration. 9. Act to bring about the transformation. Assumptions: of TQM – The Customer TQM assumes that customer is parament – Continuous Improvement include 1- enhance value to customer 2-reduce errors 3-improved productivity in the use of all resource 4- improved responsiveness and cycle time performance – Commitment and Leadership upper management is essential for TQM – Empowerment and Teamworkassume that performance improvement can not occur because of one personal efforts Input Indicators. Inputs reflect the quantity of resources appropriated to a government organization, service, or program Output Indicators. They reflect the amount of work done or the number of services provided by a government program Outcome Indicators. These indicators capture the results (or quality) of the services provided Efficiency Indicators. These indicators examine the extent to which a public organization or program is performing in relation to service delivery costs Designing a Performance Measurement System Developing a performance measurement system need not be complex A system of measuring performance requires that one understand what an organization or program is trying to achieve, who its clients are, and what level of service is being delivered at the time. The seven specific steps are: 1. Identifying a program to measure 2. Designing a purpose statement 3. Classifying program inputs, outputs, outcomes, and efficiency indicators 4. Setting performance targets 5. Monitoring performance 6. Reporting performance results 7. Concluding with analysis and action Responsiveness: is an important value of public organization and responsiveness is the extent to which an organization promotes correspondence between decision of bureaucrats and community Barriers to Responsiveness and Solutions: Linking TQM’s Philosophy Situation 1 Problem 1: Interest Group Politics and Captive Bureaucracy. TQM Solution 1: Establishing Interorganizational Teamwork and Training for External Customers. ———-Situation 2 Problem 2: Expertise and Information Distortion. TQM Solution 2: Utilizing Vertical Teamwork and Empowerment ——————Situation 3 Problem 3: Specialized Structure and Parochialism TQM Solution 3: Utilizing Horizontal Teamwork and Preventing Variation in the Product and Process ————–Situation 4 Problem 4: Attribution Error and Management Failure TQM Solution 4: Admitting Variations in Employees’ Performance and Eliminating Numerical Quota. ———–Situation 5 Problem 5: Organizational Entrapment and Trained Incapacity TQM Solution 5: Driving Out Fear, and Training on a Continuing Basis ‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬ ‫وزارة التعليم‬ ‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬ Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education Saudi Electronic University College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Assignment 3 Public Management (MGT 324) Due Date: 30/4/2022@ 23:59 Course Name: Public Management Student’s Name: Course Code: MGT 324 Student’s ID Number: Semester: Second CRN: Academic Year:2021-22-2nd For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out of 10 Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY • • • • • • • • The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder. Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. Late submission will NOT be accepted. Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism). Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted. Learning Outcomes: 3.1 Demonstrate different management and leadership styles for different situations. PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY Assignment 2 Submission Date by students: Before the end of Week11 Place of Submission: Students Grade Centre via blackboard. Weight: 10 Marks We expect you to answer each question as per instructions in the assignment. You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind. The assignment with be evaluated in terms of your planning, organization and the way you present your assignment. All the three section will carry equal weightage Kindly read the instruction carefully and prepare your assignment accordingly. 1) Planning: Read the assignments carefully, go through the Units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange them in a logical order. (3 Marks) 2) Organisation: Be a little selective and analytical before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. Give adequate attention to question’s introduction and conclusion. (3 Marks) Make sure that: a) The answer is logical and coherent b) It has clear connections between sentences and paragraphs c) The presentation is correct in your own expression and style. 3) Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answer, you can write down the final version for submission. If you so desire, you may underline the points you wish to emphasize. Make sure that the answer is within the stipulated word limit. (4 Marks) Write an essay on the following topic in about 1000-1200 words. “Leadership approach is essential for the growth and success of an organsiation. In the light of this statement, select two organizations with different leadership approaches. Compare and contrast the different leadership approaches prevailing in these organizations and their relevance in the present day context. Answers 1. Answer2. Answer3. Answer-

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