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Part 3: Thinking Critically Objectives Understand critical thinking Identify arguments Assess the credibility of an argument Explore weaknesses in an argument Objectives Overcome obstacles to critical thinking Avoid deductive reasoning fallacies Avoid inductive reasoning fallacies Become a critical thinker Understanding Critical Thinking Critical thinking requires analysis, evaluation, discipline, and rigor The goal of critical thinking is often to improve choices and reduce the risk of adopting or acting on a flawed assumption Understanding Critical Thinking Ask the following questions to improve your critical thinking: ➢ What is critical thinking? ➢ What is a claim? ➢ What is an issue? ➢ What is an argument? ➢ What is the difference between facts and opinions? Understanding Critical Thinking Steps in critical thinking Understanding Critical Thinking Facts and opinions Identifying Arguments To organize your ideas when thinking critically, you identify, construct, and evaluate arguments, which are statements or explanations that support your ideas Your premise is what you claim or content The other element of an argument is the conclusion Identifying Arguments Do’s and Don’ts for identifying arguments: ➢ Identify the arguments ➢ Look for argument indicators ➢ Differentiate between an argument and an assertion ➢ Recognize deductive arguments ➢ Recognized inductive arguments Assessing the Credibility of an Argument Assess arguments to determine how credible they are You determine whether an argument is plausible, authentic, or convincing by evaluating the validity and strength of the supporting evidence Assessing the Credibility of an Argument Steps in assessing the credibility of an argument: ➢ Consider the validity of the argument ➢ Make sure the argument is sound ➢ Assess the credibility of the source ➢ Consider reasons based on authority ➢ Compare the argument to your background knowledge Exploring Weaknesses in an Argument All arguments have some weaknesses Avoid taking an all-or-nothing approach to arguments Assess each argument according to its strengths and weaknesses Exploring Weaknesses in an Argument Do’s and Don’ts for exploring weaknesses in an argument: ➢ Consider how to test the claims and premises ➢ Evaluation the relevance ➢ Look for dubious assumptions ➢ Compare the argument to other data, observations, and ideas ➢ Identify alternative explanations Overcoming Obstacles to Critical Thinking Learn to recognize typical obstacles to critical thinking so you can anticipate and work through them Being flexible, adaptable, and openminded when working with others helps you avoid egocentric thinking Overcoming Obstacles to Critical Thinking Do’s and Don’ts for overcoming obstacles to critical thinking: ➢ Avoid egocentric thinking ➢ Be aware of your social conditioning ➢ Identify outliers ➢ Avoid normalization ➢ Respect your emotions Overcoming Obstacles to Critical Thinking Creative and critical thinking Avoiding Deductive Reasoning Fallacies A fallacy is an invalid argument that is presented so that it appears valid Skilled communicators can make flawed arguments sound reasonable Critical thinkers should consider the premises and conclusions with special care Deductive arguments can have flaws that make the arguments invalid Avoiding Deductive Reasoning Fallacies Guidelines for avoiding deductive reasoning fallacies: ➢ Avoid the slippery slope ➢ Be aware of false dilemmas ➢ Straighten out circular reasoning ➢ Clear up equivocation Avoiding Inductive Reasoning Fallacies The conclusions of an inductive argument are only as good as the quantity and quality of the premises Inductive arguments are prone to fallacies The premises must contain sufficient evidence, and the conclusion must fit the facts Avoiding Inductive Reasoning Fallacies Do’s and Don’ts for avoiding inductive reasoning fallacies: ➢ Avoid hasty generalizations ➢ Separate cause and effect ➢ Look for false causes ➢ Consider the composition Avoiding Inductive Reasoning Fallacies Hasty generalization Becoming a Critical Thinker Developing thinking and problemsolving skills is a gradual process that requires conscious effort on your part Changing thinking habits and practices is a long-range project and something you should commit to throughout your life Becoming a Critical Thinker Do’s and Don’ts for becoming a critical thinker: ➢ Develop intellectual humility ➢ Be a critic, not a cynic ➢ Challenge your assumptions and beliefs ➢ Work through complex issues and problems ➢ Have confidence in your reasoning ability Becoming a Critical Thinker Critical thinking habits Technology @ Work: Electronic Books An electronic book (e-book) is usually a combination of a hardware device you can hold in your hand and software that allows you to read the pages of a book Some e-books are designed to be used with mobile phones and smart phones that can connect to the Internet Technology @ Work: Electronic Books The most popular dedicated platform for e-books is the Amazon Kindle Technology @ Work: Electronic Books Advantages and disadvantages of ebooks: ➢ Enhance research and thinking ➢ Provide a more engaging medium ➢ Require electronic device and software ➢ Change the reading experience Summary Critical thinking requires analysis, evaluation, discipline, and rigor To organize ideas when thinking critically, you identify, construct, and evaluate arguments Assess arguments to determine how credible they are All arguments have weaknesses Summary You develop critical thinking as a skill over time through practice and repeated application Deductive arguments can have flaws that make the arguments invalid The conclusions of an inductive argument are only as good as the quantity and quality of the premises Developing thinking and problemsolving skills is a gradual process Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 1 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… Managing Conflicts Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other by Boris Groysberg and Katherine Connolly Baden From the Magazine (January–February 2019) Chris Upson/Getty Images Summary. In this fictional case, the CEO of a sports apparel manufacturer is faced with an ongoing conflict between two of his top executives. Specifically, the head of sales and the CFO are at each other’s throats and the tension is having a ripple effect on their teams and… more The feedback in the 360-degree reviews was supposed to be anonymous. But it was crystal clear who’d made the negative comments in the assessment of one executive. ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 2 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… Lance Best, the CEO of Barker Sports Apparel, was meeting with Nina Kelk, the company’s general counsel, who also oversaw human resources. It had been a long day at the company’s Birmingham, England, headquarters, and in the early evening the two were going over the evaluations of each of Lance’s direct reports. Lance was struck by what he saw in CFO Damon Ewen’s file. Most of the input was neutral, which was to be expected. Though brilliant and well respected, Damon wasn’t the warmest of colleagues. But one person had given him the lowest ratings possible, and from the written remarks, Lance could tell that it was Ahmed Lund, Barker’s head of sales. One read: “I’ve never worked with a bigger control freak in my life.” “These comments are pretty vicious,” Lance said. “You’re surprised?” Nina asked. “I guess not,” Lance acknowledged. His CFO and his sales chief had been at loggerheads for a while. Ahmed’s 360 also contained a few pointed complaints about his working style 1 —no doubt from Damon. CASE STUDY CLASSROOM NOTES 1 Many Fortune 500 companies do 360-degree reviews, but researchers have raised concerns about the usefulness of the data they generate. Lance sighed. Five years earlier, when he’d stepped into his role, he’d been focused on growing the company that his father, Eric— the previous CEO—had founded. Barker licensed the rights to put sports leagues’ logos on merchandise and partnered with large brands to produce it for retail markets, and when Lance took the company over, its revenues were about £100 million. Soon after, he’d landed the firm’s biggest partner, Howell. Negotiating the deal with the global brand had been a challenge, but it increased business so much that Lance and his direct reports still felt they ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 3 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… didn’t have enough hours in the day to get everything done. They certainly didn’t have time for infighting like this. 2 2 According to a study from CPP Global, 36% of U.S. employees say they always or frequently deal with conflict at work. “So what do we do with this info?” Lance asked. Nina shrugged. “This is the first time I’ve been through this process myself.” “Right. Clearly I’ve got to do something, though. I know that Ahmed and Damon aren’t mates, but I do expect them to be civil.” Nina nodded, but Lance sensed she was biting her tongue. “You can be honest with me, Nina. I need your counsel.” “Well,” she said tentatively, “I think that’s part of the problem. The expectation is that we’re civil, but that doesn’t translate to collaboration. We all trust you, but there isn’t a whole lot of trust between the team members. 3 3 How critical is trust on teams? A Mars Inc. study showed that individual motivation drove collaboration more often than trust and relationships did. “So does everyone think Damon is awful?” he asked, pointing to the report. Nina shook her head. “It’s not just about him. You can see from the feedback that Ahmed isn’t a saint either. He picks fights with Damon, and the tension between them—and their teams—has been having a ripple effect on the rest of us. You see the fingerpointing. It seems like everyone is out for themselves.” Although Lance hated hearing this, it wasn’t news. He’d just tried to convince himself that the problems were growing pains and ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 4 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… would sort themselves out. After all, sales and finance were often at odds in organizations, and the conflict hadn’t had a big impact on Barker’s revenues. They’d grown 22% the previous year and 28% the year before that. Of course, none of that growth had come easily, and opportunities had certainly been missed. Barker had dropped the ball on inquiries from several retailers interested in its products by failing to coordinate getting them into the company’s system quickly. Now, Lance realized that might be a sign of more fallout to come. He needed to fix this. “My dad always wanted to do one of those team-building retreats,” 4 he said, smiling. This had been a running joke among Barker’s executives for years. Whenever Eric had sensed tension, he would mention the idea, but he never followed through. 4 Do team activities actually result in better collaboration? Or are they mostly feel-good exercises with little lasting effect? Nina laughed. “Unfortunately, I think we’re beyond that.” This Mess The next morning, Lance was in his office when he got a text from Jhumpa Bhandari, the head of product and merchandising: Can you talk? Knowing this couldn’t be good, Lance called her immediately. Skipping the formalities, she launched in: “You need to get them on the same page.” Lance didn’t have to ask who “them” was. “Ahmed has promised samples for the new line on the Clarkson account, but his order exceeds the limits accounting set, so we need Damon’s sign-off, and he won’t give it.” This was a recurring fight. Ahmed accused Damon of throwing up roadblocks and using his power to undermine the sales ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 5 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… department. Damon retorted that Ahmed was driving Barker into the ground by essentially giving products away. Lance went back and forth on whose side he took, depending on which of them was behaving worse. But he didn’t want to intervene again. Why couldn’t they just find a compromise? Practically reading his mind, Jhumpa said, “They’ll stay in this standoff forever if you let them. It’s as if they’re in their own little fiefdoms; they act like they’re not even part of the same team.” “Have you talked to them about this?” “The holdup with Clarkson? Of course I have. But it doesn’t help. This situation is a mess.” The last comment stung. The team wasn’t perfect, but it was still operating at a pretty high level. “It would really help if you talked to them,” Jhumpa gently pleaded. Lance thought back to the last time he’d sat down with Ahmed and Damon. Each had brought a binder filled with printouts of the e-mails they’d exchanged about a missed sale. Lance had marveled at how long it had probably taken each of them to prepare—never mind the wasted paper. “Let me look into it,” Lance said. This had become his default response. “Can I tell you what I’d do if I were in your shoes?” Jhumpa said. “Fire them both.” 5 5 Research from RHR International found that CEOs who replaced members of their senior teams actually wished they had done so sooner. Though Lance had always appreciated her straightforwardness, ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 6 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… he was taken aback. “Just kidding,” she added hastily. “What about having them work with a coach? I mean, we could all benefit from having someone to help us talk through how we handle conflicts and from establishing some new norms.” Lance wondered if the firing comment had really been a joke, but he let it pass. “I did talk to that leadership development firm last year,” he said. “They had some coaching packages that seemed appealing, but we all agreed we were too busy with the new accounts.” “Well, maybe we should make time now,” Jhumpa replied. After they hung up, Lance was still thinking about the idea of letting Ahmed and Damon go. Terrifying as the thought was, it might also be a relief. He’d heard of CEOs who’d cleaned house and replaced several top execs at once. He could keep Jhumpa, Nina, and a few others and bring in some fresh blood. It would be one surefire way to reset the team dynamics. Doing Just Fine Later that afternoon, at the end of a regular meeting with the finance team, Lance asked Damon to stay behind. “I heard there’s a holdup on the Clarkson samples,” he said. “The usual. Sales needs to pare back the order. As soon as Ahmed does that, I can sign off,” Damon said calmly. “It doesn’t sound like Ahmed’s budging.” “He will.” Lance decided to wade in. “Is everything OK with you guys?” “Same as usual. Why? What’s going on? The numbers look great this quarter. We’re doing just fine.” “I agree on one level, but I have concerns on another. It’s taking ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 7 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… six months to onboard new customers at a time when everyone is fighting for them.” “Is this about those 360 reviews? I tried to be fair in my feedback,” Damon said a bit defensively. “The input is anonymous, so I don’t know who said what, but the tension between you and Ahmed is obvious.” “Of course it is. I’m the CFO and he’s in charge of sales. If we’re both doing our jobs well, there’s going to be conflict. 6 And that’s what I’m doing: my job. I’m the keeper of the bottom line, and that means I’m going to butt heads with a few people.” Lance had heard him say this before, but Damon took it one step further this time. “Your discomfort with conflict doesn’t make this any easier.” 7 6 Should sales and finance departments be at odds? Can the resulting tension be productive for an organization? 7 Can you be an effective CEO if you’re uncomfortable dealing with conflict? They both sat quietly for a minute. Lance knew that as part of this process he’d need to examine his own leadership. Indeed, his 360 had been eye-opening. His people had described him as a passionate entrepreneur and a visionary, but they’d also commented on his preference for managing one-on-one instead of shepherding the team and on his tendency to favor big-picture thinking over a focus on details. “OK. I hear you on that,” Lance finally said. “That’s on me. But you also need to think about what you can do to improve this situation. There’s a difference between productive and ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 8 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… unhealthy conflict, and right now it feels like we’ve got too much of the latter.” 8 8 Conflict over how to perform a task can produce constructive debate and improve decisions. But conflict over personal issues can erode trust on a team. Our Vision Might Crumble “Have you considered one of those team-building retreats?” Lance’s father asked when they spoke that night. “I know you all never took me seriously—” Lance chuckled. “Because you never booked it!” “—but I still think it’s a good idea,” Eric continued. “No one really knows how to have a productive fight at work. It’s not a skill you’re born with. You have to learn it.” “I’m considering it, Dad. But I’m not sure it would be enough at this point.” “What about the comp?” This was another thing Eric had brought up routinely. During his tenure as CEO he’d realized that the C-suite compensation wasn’t structured to encourage collaboration. Bonuses were based on individual, functional-unit, and company performance at respective weightings of 25%, 70%, and 5%. “Maybe it’s time to bump up that 5% to at least 10% or even 20%,” Eric said. “I’d like to make those changes, but I need Damon’s help to do it, and he’s swamped,” Lance said. “Besides, lots of experts say that too many people view comp as a hammer and every problem as a nail. CEOs expect comp to fix anything, but usually you need other tools. I may have to do something more drastic.” ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 9 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… “You’re not considering firing anyone, are you?” Eric had personally hired all the senior executives now on Lance’s team and was almost as loyal to them as he was to his own family. “To be honest, it’s been on my mind. I’m not sure what I would do without Ahmed or Damon. They’re an important part of why we make our numbers each year. They help us win. But I look back and wonder how we did it playing the game this way. I need a team that’s going to work together to reach our longer-term goals.” 9 When Eric had retired, he and Lance had set a target of reaching revenues of £500 million by 2022. “This group feels as if it could disintegrate at any moment. And our vision might crumble along with it.” 10 9 A study at Google found five keys to team effectiveness: psychological safety, dependability, structure and clarity, meaning, and impact. 10 Would this conflict have played out differently if Barker weren’t a family business? “I’m sorry,” Eric said. “Do you feel like you inherited a pile of problems from your old dad?” “No, I feel like I’ve somehow created this one—or at least made it worse.” “Well, one thing is certain: You’re the boss now. So you’ll have to decide what to do.” Question: How should Lance handle the conflict between Damon and Ahmed? The Experts Respond Scott Salmirs is the president and CEO of ABM Industries. ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 10 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… LANCE’S PROBLEM ISN’T PERSONNEL; it’s culture. He should focus less on the specific conflict between Ahmed and Damon and more on the silos that his executives are operating in—silos that he has enabled and perhaps even encouraged. Aligned incentives, outside coaching, and team-building exercises are all helpful, but they won’t work unless Lance is clear about the kind of collaboration he wants to see. Teamwork happens when people understand that their goals are intricately linked with their colleagues’. The CFO alone can’t ensure an organization’s success; he or she needs to agree with the sales chief about the best type of growth, with the head of HR about talent needs, and with the general counsel about contract terms. It may sound clichéd, but the C-suite is an ecosystem, not a fiefdom. Four years ago, when I took over as CEO of ABM, one of the largest facility-services providers in the United States, the company was pretty siloed. So I created a rule that no decision could be made without at least three people in the room. When the CFO came to me with a recommendation, I’d say, “Let’s bring in the CHRO and see what he thinks.” My belief was—and still is—that greater input from more people yields better decisions. I’ll admit that it was awkward at the start; people thought I didn’t trust them to do their jobs. But within six months they had embraced the change. The CFO would show up at my office with the CHRO and the general counsel. Now it’s very rare for someone to come to me without having first bounced things off at least a few colleagues. Lance needs to focus on the silos his executives are operating in. ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 11 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… The idea isn’t to create extra work. By all means Lance should be careful with his team’s time. But I’m not advocating for extensive consultations or long meetings to hash out every detail. I’m just arguing for more open conversation—between Ahmed and Damon and everyone else—so that the group can avoid conflict and make higher-quality decisions together. Lance can start by holding biweekly staff meetings where the group members talk candidly about organizational goals and how to collectively accomplish them. He might even ask them all to work on a project—perhaps revamping the compensation system—so that they have a concrete business reason to collaborate. Soon after I took over ABM, we reorganized the business from service lines to customer verticals and moved to a shared-servicecenter model. To help us through the process, I formed a steering committee of the firm’s senior leaders. I told them I expected them to debate and argue, but that when we made a decision, there would be no eye rolling or second-guessing. Most were able to abide by that. A few who continued to stir up conflict and undermine our efforts were eventually let go. Lance may need to do the same with Ahmed and Damon if they can’t work through their tensions. But first he must explicitly encourage more C-suite teamwork. “Fresh blood” won’t solve the problem if the culture is still dysfunctional. Dale Winston is the chairwoman and CEO of Battalia Winston, an executive search firm. I AGREE WITH JHUMPA: What a mess! Has Lance really turned a blind eye to this problem since he took over as chief executive, five years ago? He’s lucky that Barker has maintained its growth, because this kind of turf war can be crippling to an organization. ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 12 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… And I suspect that if he doesn’t address the tension between Ahmed and Damon soon, his luck will run out. At this point, outside help seems warranted. Lance should hire an organizational consultant and coach to objectively analyze and diagnose the situation and make neutral recommendations on how to fix it. It may be that Damon needs coaching on how he communicates or that he and Ahmed need to talk through their conflicting approaches. In the 27 years that I’ve run Battalia Winston, one of the largest woman-owned executive search firms in the United States, I’ve hired many coaches to help executives understand how their work styles may be affecting those around them. If Lance sacks one or both of them, he looks weak and incapable. I’ve also had success with the team-building exercises that Eric suggests. Retreats are a great opportunity to step away from dayto-day issues and gripes and discuss work styles and how people want to collaborate and generally put everyone on the same page. With the right facilitator, which is always critical, Lance can get his team rowing in the right direction, and the exercise will benefit all members even if some people need it more than others do. I certainly would not recommend that Lance fire either Ahmed or Damon now. When two senior managers don’t play well together in the sandbox, employees inevitably start to take sides. If Lance sacks one or both of them simply because they bicker with each other, he looks weak and incapable of managing healthy debate on his team. There are conflicts in every organization. Damon is right that sales departments often prioritize revenues over profitability and ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠ Case Study: When Two Leaders on the Senior Team Hate Each Other 14 14 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ https://hbr.org/2019/01/case-study-when-two-leaders-on-the-senior-tea… Case Study: Are Our Customer Liaisons Helping or Hurting? Senior Managers Won’t Always Get Along Case Study: What Does Diversity Mean in a Global Organization? ‫ م‬١٠:٥٤ ،٢٠٢٢/١٠/٢٠

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