(Mt) – University of the Cumberlands Motivation Concepts Discussion

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Essentials of Organizational Behavior Fourteenth Edition Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. After studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Describe the three key elements of motivation. 2. Compare the early theories of motivation. 3. Contrast the elements of self-determination theory and goal-setting theory. 4. Demonstrate the differences between self-efficacy theory, reinforcement theory, equity theory, and expectancy theory. 5. Identify the implications of employee job engagement for managers. 6. Describe how the contemporary theories of motivation complement one another. Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What Is Motivation? • Motivation: The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining an organizational goal – Intensity: the amount of effort put forth to meet the goal – Direction: efforts are channeled toward organizational goals – Persistence: how long the effort is maintained Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Early Theories of Motivation • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory • Herzberg’s Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory • McClellan’s Theory of Needs (Three Needs Theory) Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hierarchy of Needs Theory (1 of 2) Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Two-Factor Theory Dissatisfied Satisfied • Quality of supervision • Pay • Company policies • Physical working conditions • Relationships • Job security • Promotional opportunities • Opportunities for personal growth • Recognition • Responsibility • Achievement Motivation Factors Hygiene Factors Not Dissatisfied Not Satisfied Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hierarchy of Needs Theory (2 of 2) Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. McClelland’s Theory of Needs • Need for Achievement (nAch) – The drive to excel • Need for Power (nPow) – The need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise • Need for Affiliation (nAff) – The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. McClelland’s High Achievers • High achievers prefer jobs with: – Personal responsibility – Feedback – Intermediate degree of risk (50/50) • High achievers are not necessarily good managers • High nPow and low nAff is related to managerial success Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Contemporary Theories of Motivation • Self-Determination Theory • Goal-Setting Theory – Management by Objectives Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self-Determination Theory • Self-determination theory: People prefer to have control over their actions so when they feel they are forced to do something they previously enjoyed, motivation will decrease – Cognitive evaluation theory: Proposes that the introduction of extrinsic rewards for work (pay) that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivation – Self-concordance: Considers how strongly people’s reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Goal-Setting Theory • Goals increase performance when goals are: – Specific – Difficult, but accepted by employees – Accompanied by feedback: self-generated feedback is best • Contingencies in goal-setting theory – Goal commitment: public goals better – Task characteristics: simple and familiar is better – National culture: Western culture suits best Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Management by Objectives • Management by objectives (MBO): Converts overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals • Common ingredients: – – – – Goal specificity Explicit time period Performance feedback Participation in decision making Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cascading of Objectives Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation • Self-Efficacy Theory • Reinforcement Theory • Equity Theory – Organizational Justice • Expectancy Theory Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self-Efficacy Theory (1 of 2) • Self-efficacy theory: An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task – Also known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory • Self-efficacy increased by: 1. Enactive mastery: gain experience 2. Vicarious modeling: see someone else do the task 3. Verbal persuasion: someone convinces you that you have the skills 4. Arousal: get energized Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Self-Efficacy Theory (2 of 2) Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reinforcement Theory • Reinforcement theory: Behavior is a function of consequences – Operant conditioning theory ▪ Behaviorism – Social- learning theory and reinforcement Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Equity Theory (1 of 2) • Equity theory: Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome) – They compare their input-outcome ratio with the inputoutcome ratio of relevant others Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Equity Theory (2 of 2) • Equity theory suggests employees who perceive inequity will make one of six choices: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Change inputs Change outcomes Distort perceptions of self Distort perceptions of others Choose a different referent Leave the field Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Model of Organizational Justice Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Expectancy Theory (1 of 2) • Three key relationships: 1. Effort-performance: perceived probability that exerting effort leads to successful performance 2. Performance-reward: the belief that successful performance leads to desired outcome 3. Rewards-personal goals: the attractiveness of organizational outcome (reward) to the individual Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Expectancy Theory (2 of 2) Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Job Engagement • Job Engagement: The investment of an employee’s physical, cognitive, and emotional energies into job performance • Organizations where employees are highly engaged have: – Higher levels of productivity – Fewer safety incidents – Lower turnover Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Integrating Theories Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Implications for Managers • Make sure extrinsic rewards for employees are not viewed as coercive, but instead provide information about competence and relatedness. • Consider goal-setting theory. Clear and difficult goals often lead to higher levels of employee productivity. • Consider reinforcement theory regarding quality and quantity of work, persistence of effort, absenteeism, and accident rates. • Consult equity theory to help understand productivity, satisfaction, absence, and turnover variables. • Expectancy theory offers a powerful explanation of performance variables such as employee productivity, absenteeism, and turnover. Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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