200 PART FOUR: CASE STUDIES
Habib, S. Irian, and Druv Raina. 2005. “Reinventing Traditional Medicine: Method, Insti-tutional Change, and the Manufacture of Drugs and Medication in Late Colonial India.” In Asian Medicine and Globalization, edited by Joseph S. Alter, 67-77. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Hague, Zahidul. 2004. “Business Promotion Council for Herbal Medicine Sector on Cards.” Daily Star (Dhaka), August 1. Hardiman, David. 2009. “Wiwi Medical Indigeneity: From Nationalist Assertion to the Global Market.” Social History 34, no. 3: 263-283. Langford, Jean. 2002. Fluent Bodies: Ayurvedic Remedies fir Postcolonial Imbalance. Dur-ham, NC: Duke University Press. Leslie, Charles. 1976. “The Ambiguities of Medical Revivalism in Modern India.” In Asian Medical Systems: A Comparative Study, edited by Charles M. Leslie, 356-367. Berkeley: University of California Press. Lieheskind, Claudia. 2002. “Arguing Science: Unani Tibb, Hakims and Biomedicine in India, 1900-50.” In Plural Medicine, Tradition and Modernity, INO-2000, edited by Waltraud Ernst, 58-75. New York: Routledge. Osman, Ferdous Arfina. 2004. Policy Making in Bangladesh: A Study of the Health Policy Process. Dhaka, Bangladesh: A.H. Development Publishing House. Petryna, Adriana, Andrew Lakoff, and Arthur Kleinman. 2006. Global Pharmaceuticals: Ethics, Markets, Practices. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Reich, Michael R. 1994. “Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Policy and Politics.” Health Policy and Planning 9, no. 2: 130-143. Ross, Anamaria losif. 2012. The Anthropology of Alternative Medicine. New York: Berg. Sheehan, Helen E., and S.J. Hussain. 2002. “Unani Tibb: History, Theory, and Contemporary Practice in South Asia.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 583: 122-135. World Bank. March 2008. Public and Private Sector Apimaches to Improving Pharmaceutical Quality in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Development Series Paper no. 23. Dhaka, Bangladesh: World Bank Human Development Unit, South Asia Region. hup://apps.whoint/medicine-docs/documents/s I 6761e/s16761e.pdf. World Health Organization. December 2008. “Traditional Medicine.” Fact Sheet no. 134. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs I 34/en/. Whyte, Susan Reynolds, Sjaak Van der Grccst, and Anita Hardon. 2003. Social Lives of Medicines. Cambridge. UK: Cambridge University Press. Writ Petition No. 3892.1992. Supreme Court of Bangladesh. Wujastyk, Dominik. 2001. The Roots 4.4yurveda. Rev. ed. New Delhi: Penguin. Zannat, Mahbuba. 2007. “Drug Policy Lacks Control Over Price.” Daily Star (Dhaka), May 6.
Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka
The Sri Lankan civil war, which lasted from the 1980s until its end in 2009, was one of the bloodiest conflicts in the world. Sri Lanka society, like the rest of the South Asian subcontinent, is divided by ethnic groups and faces the constant challenge of mediating conflict between them. The Sri Lankan war offers many lessons about how ethnic wars begin and how difficult it is to end them. There are also lessons about how governments can and should respond to such conflicts. The war was fought between the Sri Lankan government and a rebel group, the Lib-eration Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LITE). The LTTE became the self-appointed representa-tive of the Tamil ethnic minority in Sri Lanka, and the government side was dominated by the Sinhalese ethnic majority. The conflict began with sporadic attacks in the 1970s and escalated into a full-fledged war after 1983. For the next twenty-six years, until the military defeat of the rebel group in 2009, the war escalated in violence, causing more than 100,000 deaths by the end. The war began with an ill-equipped and militarily untrained group of young fight-ers. As the fighting progressed, however, the LTTE emerged as one of the world’s most feared and ferocious military organizations. In addition, foreign powers were drawn into the conflict, and by its end it had become internationalized, with the United Nations, the United States, and the European Union trying to mediate the conflict, and Iran, China, and Russia supporting the government with arms sales. After the LTTE was defeated in May 2009, the country embarked on what was expected to be a period of rebuilding and reconciliation. This process has progressed very slowly, and many of the wounds of the war continue to plague Sri Lankan society.
Overview of the Conflict
Despite its small size, Sri Lanka is a very densely populated country. More than 20 million people live in a land area the size of Kentucky. They are divided by language, religion, and ethnicity. The war disrupted the normal patterns of society, and the government of Sri Lanka was unable to carry out a complete national census until 2012. The results of that census have been disputed by some Tamil sources, which see it as an attempt to understate the Tamil population. (For full census results, see Sri Lanka Department of Census and Statistics 2012.) The majority of the population, or 74.9 percent, are members of the Sinhalese ethnic group. They speak the Sinhala language, and most are Buddhist.
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