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Research Paper Outline

Tommy T. Bush

April 11, 2022

Diversity and Inclusion in American Societies


The current contemporary U.S societies are characteristic of numerous ethnic, cultural, and religious groups that are integral for economic, political, and financial developments. By this, facilitating implicit improvements of our societies, requires the government and other institutions to be considerate of diversity, social inclusion, and equity. In this sense, the various scientific research studies informing on the undertaking of this research stipulate towards how diversity and social inclusion could be used to improve womrn particpation and leadership in sports. Particularly, the research will explore the importance of diversity and inclusion in American societies especially in the sports industry, where wome are underrrepresentted.

Research Purpose

Laying emphasis upon diversity and inclusion in sports and gender equality the research establishes how the cognitive thory and persons behavior could help, understand the reasoning behind thelimited sociial inclusivity of women in roles of high standards. Specifically, clubs, sporting agencies, and U.S government cannot be ignorant of the positive attributes arising because of promoting social inclusion, gender equality, and diversity.

Research Focus

The underrepresentation of persons’ from different cultural, ethnic, and gender backgrounds in U.S sports is quite common (Ansari, Jabeen, Baig, and Salman, 2016). It is also evident that person’s with disability and women can attain the necessry professionalism, This research study will consider the rationale that women are dicriminated and often experince biasness during hiring and work promotion. By promoting diversity and inclusion in sports would increase mutual respect, equality, and women inclusivity.

The research will necessarily explore women participation in sports using cognitive diversity approach. The cognitive diversity theory hypothesizes that there are various perspectives affecting sports participation like cultural differences, gender, and ethnicity, which often impact team performances, innovativity in the industry, and problem solving capabilities (Bernstein and Bulger et al. 2020). It is the awareness of most minority groups that existing disparity issues in the sports industry limits operational efficacy. For instance, women are highly discriminated in sports with most being unable to realize management positions especially in teams dominated by men. In essence, by undertaking an implicit focus upon issues of diversity and inclusion in the sports industry, the researcher uses the cognitive diversity theory to expound on ways to improve diversity and inclusion of women in the gender bias sports industry.

Research Audience

The essential focus upon diversity and sports inclusion is indicative of the fact; this research is addressing tour sports industry, its sponsors, management, and the contemporary society. By this, even with implicit emphasis upon sports activities, there are yet; other issues concerning diversity and inclusion that affect individuals from minority groups and the female gender.

Cognitive Diversity Theory

To facilitate and expound further about issues of diversity and inclusion in American societies, with explicit emphasis upon sports activities, the researcher articulates to the cognitive diversity theory. Providing a brief description of the theory, Chow (2018) indicates that inclusion of people from different cultural, ethnic backgrounds,or else gender warrants better problem solving and the emergence of better perspectives when adressing contemporary social issues. With RESM (recreation event and sport management), proper assimilation of diversity and inclusion aspects is necessary to forster increased social relations, stability, and the empowerment of minority groups, female gender, and persons with disability.


Presenting a clear understanding of this issue on diversity and inclusion requires the introductory part of the research analysis to elaborate how diversity and the lack of inclusion in the society, at the workplace, with education, and other recreational events limits progress and participation. The research will seek to provide different useful approaches that would be of great significance in the attainment of diversity and inclusion using the cognitive diversity theory.

Further, by referring to persons’ from minority backgrounds and gender discrimination, elements that are quite common in the sporting industry, the research will provide clear deductions supporting cognitive diversity hypothesis regarding diversity and social inclusion.Under the main research part of the paper, there will be major critique into how cognitive diversity theory portrays the existing gaps in our current contemporary societies regarding the promotion of diversity and inclusion.

Taking the research further into RESM, the researcher will consider inclusion gender inclusion and women empowerment in sporting activities. This perspective is crucial because of the lacking representation of women in coaching/managerial positions, especially in sports dominated by men.The research will seek to determine ways that could be ligitimized by policy makers and sport agencies to ensure improved inclusion of groups that have long been neglected in the society.


With any research study, connecting the research purpose, objectives, hypothesis, and literature analysis is crucial. To establish a clear understanding of cognitive diversity theory and the interconnectedness with aspects of inclusion and diversity especially in sporting events, the researcher emphasizes upon roles allocated to the female gender RESM events like NBA that are influenced by male dominance.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Diversity and social inclusion in the current contemporary societies is required to forster better relationships, stability, and professionalism. In this sense, it is unwanting for a coach or a football manager to dismiss a player or discriminate persons because of their race, color, gender, or disabilities. With this research, the use of cognitive diversity approach presents informative issues regarding ways that should be utilized by sports entities to promote better inclusion of talent and participants from diverse backgrounds.


Ansari, N., Jabeen, N., Moazzam Baig, A., & Salman, Y. (2016). Diversity Management: Towards a Theory of Gender Sensitive Practices. Bulletin of Education and Research38(2), 293-306.

Bernstein, R. S., Bulger, M., Salipante, P., & Weisinger, J. Y. (2020). From diversity to inclusion

to equity: A theory of generative interactions. Journal of Business Ethics, 167(3), 395-410.

Chow, I. H. S. (2018). Cognitive diversity and creativity in teams: the mediating roles of team

learning and inclusion. Chinese Management Studies.

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