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Answer the following to that best of your knowledge and we will review in class.
An epidemiologist wants to study the causes of a rare cancer, which of the following study designs would it be best for him to use?
A. Retrospective Cohort
B. Prospective Cohort
C. Cross Sectional
D. CaseControl
An investigator is interested in understanding how roadside air pollution may cause COPD in older adults. She randomly samples older adults living in Los Angeles with residences near and far from major highways. She then follows the study participants for 15 years and records who develops COPD. What measure of effect should she use in her data analysis?
A. Odds Ratio
B. Relative Risk
C. Prevalence Ratio
D. Prevalence Ratio
The main characteristic that distinguishes a clinical trial from a prospective cohort study design is which of the following?
A. The followup time is short (ex. 2 years or less)
B. Some study participants serve as the comparison group
C. Study participants are randomized to receive or not receive the exposure
D. Study participants are followed prospectively
Which of the following can introduce selection bias into a prospective cohort study?
A. Restricting the target population to control for confounding
B. Not randomly sampling the target population
C. Having lost to followup in the study
D. All answers are correct
Which of the following 95% confidence intervals associated with a relative risk of 1.6 is most precise?
A. 95% CI [ 1.2, 2.0]
B. 95% CI [ 1.0, 2.2]
C. 5% CI [ 1.0, 2.2]
D. 95% CI [0.9, 2.3]
Which 95% confidence interval listed in Question 5 suggests the RR =1.6 is not statistically significant?
A. 95% CI [1.1, 2.1] and 95% CI [0.09, 2.3]
B. 95% CI [1.0, 2.2]
C. 95% CI [1.0, 2.2] and 95% CI [0.09, 2.3]
D. 95% CI[0.09, 2.3]
A 90% confidence interval is associated with which of the following pvalues?
A. 0.10
B. pvalues are not related to confidence intervals
C. 0.05
D. 0.90
With which of the following measures of effect can an epidemiologist not infer causality?
A. Odds Ratio
B. Prevalence Ratio
C. Relative Risk
D. Hazard Ratio
In which section of a journal article should a reader look for potential selection bias?
A. Background/Introduction section
B. Methods sectionmeasurement of the exposure
C. Results sectiontables
D. Methods sectionmeasurement of disease
E. Methods sectionstudy population
In which section of a journal article should a reader look for potential misclassification of the exposure?
A. Methods sectionstudy population
B. Background/Introduction section
C. Methods sectionmeasurement of disease
D. Methods sectionmeasurement of the exposure
E. Results sectiontables
In which section of a journal article should a reader look for potential misclassification of the disease?
A. Methods sectionmeasurement of the exposure
B. Methods sectionmeasurement of the disease
C. Methods sectionstudy population
D. Background/Introduction section
E. Results sectiontables
In which section of a journal article should a reader look for variable thought to be confounders by the authors?
A. Background/Introduction section
B. Results sectiontables
C. Methods sectionmeasurement of the exposure
D. Methods sectionstudy population
E. Methods sectionmeasurement of the disease
In which section of a journal article should a reader look for the authors’ hypothesis?
A. Methods sectionmeasurement of the disease
B. Methods sectionmeasurement of the exposure
C. Background/Introduction section
D. Methods sectionstudy population
E. Results section – tables
An epidemiologist is interested to know the 10year survival probability of children diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). The life table below represents 100,000 children who were diagnosed with ALL within the past year. Each interval in the life table represents the number of years followed. Use this life table below to answer the following questions.
Life table of 100,000 children diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia 

Years of followup 
Number at Risk 
# of Deaths 
# of Lost to Followup or Competing Causes (Censored) 
Effective Number at Risk 
Risk of Death 
Survival Probability 
Cumulative Survival Probability 
05 
100,000 
5,000 
7,000 

610 
3,000 
4,400 

What is the effective number of children at risk for the first interval (05 years of followup)?
What is the risk of death for the first interval?
What is the survival probability for the first interval?
What is the number of children at risk for the second interval?
What is the cumulative survival probability at the end of 10 years of followup?
Directions for the rest of the questions. please see the following 2X2 table. All of your calculations can be done on a separate piece of paper and do not need to be shown for the exam.
*For these questions, please only enter your final calculation into the blank.
*Remember to use the correct rounding as your answers will be automatically graded and therefore not sensitive to discrepancies in rounding.
What is the relative risk?
Lung Disease 
No Lung Disease 
Total 

Any Smoking 
155 
2,495 
2,650 
No Smoking 
2,008 
48,355 
50,363 
What is the ln(RR)?
What is the standard error of the ln(RR)?
What is the lower 95% confidence interval?
What is the upper 95% confidence interval?
Smoking increases the risk of lung disease. T/F
The relative risk is statistically significant.T/F
If you had calculated a 90% confidence interval, it would be more precise.T/F
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